Canadian Social Research Links


Sites de recherche sociale au Canada

Updated May 1, 2018
Page révisée le 1er avril 2018

[ Go to Canadian Social Research Links Home Page ]

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* Key Welfare Links in Yukon (see the grey box below, right column)
* Latest Yukon Budget
(April 2, 2015) - Scroll down to "NEW" (just below)
* Poverty reduction in Yukon
(see below "NEW")
* Non-governmental sites in Manitoba


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NEW From Maytree:
[ ]

Social assistance summaries released
April 24
Maytree has released the latest update to Social Assistance Summaries, a resource that shows the number of social assistance recipients across Canada and how that has changed over time. This update includes 2017 data provided by provincial and territorial government officials alongside a brief description of the social assistance programs in each jurisdiction.

Social Assistance Summaries uses data provided by provincial and territorial government officials to track the number of social assistance recipients across Canada. It also includes a brief description of the social assistance programs in each jurisdiction.

How to view the reports:
Select a province or territory from the list below to download that jurisdiction's summary and statistics in a separate report (avg. 3-4 pages), or download the complete national report in one file (75 pages).


Download the all-Canada report (PDF, 75 pages) :

Download content directly for individual jurisdictions:

Alberta :

British Columbia :

Manitoba :

New Brunswick :

Newfoundland and Labrador :

Nova Scotia :

Northwest Territories :

Nunavut :

Ontario :

Prince Edward Island :

Quebec :

Saskatchewan :

Yukon Territory :

Maytree is committed to advancing systemic solutions to poverty and strengthening civic communities. It believes the most enduring way to fix the systems that create poverty is to have economic and social rights safeguarded for all people living in Canada.

Related link:

Social Assistance Summaries 2014 (PDF - 235KB, 49 pages)
Anne Makhoul, March 201

YAPC releases results of Food Cost Monitoring project
March 27, 2018

Whitehorse – The Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition (YAPC) is pleased to release a final report highlighting the cost and availability of nutritious food in communities throughout Yukon. Community researchers in Carcross, Carmacks, Dawson City, Faro and eight other communities measured the cost of 67 foods included in the Revised Northern Food Basket in June 2017 to help estimate the costs of a basic, healthy diet for Yukon residents.

The cost of healthy eating in Yukon (PDF report - 24 pages)*

Infographic (PDF, one page)*
--- based on food price data collected by community researchers at grocery stores throughout the territory between June 12, 2017, and June 21, 2017.

*NOTE: The links to the above report and infographic work fine in my Google Chrome browser, but neither opens the PDF files. If this is the case for you, click the "...YAPC releases results..." link above, then select the file you wish to access.

Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition

2nd Annual Living Wage calculation for Whitehorse released
September 6, 2017
Whitehorse - 6 September 2017 - The Yukon Anti Poverty Coalition is pleased to release “Living Wage in Whitehorse, Yukon: 2017”. The Coalition has committed to calculating the living wage each year to maintain a current and accurate measurement of the cost of living in Whitehorse. Calculating the living wage on an annual basis allows us to measure the impact of policy changes on the ability of low- and modest-income families to meet their basic needs.


Report (PDF):

Infographic (PDF)

2017 Calculation Guide (PDF)

For more information:

Kendall Hammond, author of report: (778) 676-6506
Kate Mechan, Community Outreach: 334-9317

Living Wage in Whitehorse, Yukon: 2016 (PDF - 620K, 20 pages)
Prepared by Kendall Hammond of the
Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition
The living wage is a call to find ways of reducing living costs and raising income in Whitehorse to eliminate the gap between wages and the cost of basic necessities. Research suggests that paying workers a living wage produces health, social, and economic benefits that improve the well-being of communities.


- Go to the Minimum Wage / Living Wage Links page:

What Will it Take to Make Real
Progress on Northern Food Security?
(PDF - 1.5MB, 12 pages)
April 2016
This paper provides a brief overview of the evidence, and presents a number of policy recommendations for federal, provincial and territorial governments. These recommendations extend from an understanding of poverty, decreasing access to traditional foods, and the high cost of store-bought foods as key causes of food insecurity.

Is Nutrition North Canada on Shifting Ground?
April 2016
The Food Mail program, which was replaced by Nutrition North Canada, helped to create a grocery retailing environment in the north that was markedly different from what exists in the south. (...) We make the case that Nutrition North Canada is a simple subsidy for northern retailers that has been built on a flawed, overly-ambitious policy rationale. If the program is to continue in its current form, it can and should be grounded in a more realistic and comprehensive policy and program approach to the price of food in the north.

Food Banks Canada

Yukon Budget 2015-2016
April 2, 2015
Click the link above to acces all budget documents listed below.

* 2015-16 Budget Address [pdf 89.52 KB]
* 2015-16 Budget Highlights [pdf 51.57 KB]
* 2015-16 Financial Information [pdf 798.71 KB]
* 2015-16 Projections [pdf 191.00 KB]
* 2015-16 Operation & Maintenance and Capital Estimates

NOTA : Vous trouverez des liens vers la version française
de tous les documents budgétaires ci-dessous au lien suivant:


Poverty Reduction in Yukon

NOTE: this link takes you to the Yukon section of the
Anti-poverty Strategies and Campaigns page of this site:

Since May 2010, ALL links to content concerning poverty reduction strategies and campaigns have been moved to the above page from the individual provincial/territorial pages, including government and NGO links.

Minimum Wage in Yukon:

Current and Forthcoming Minimum Hourly Wage Rates for Adult Workers in Canada
- federal govt. site --- the best resource for info on current and upcoming minimum wage levels
Source :
Minimum Wage Database

Government - Gouvernement

Government of Yukon Home Page
[ Page d'accueil du gouvernement du Yukon ]

Government Telephone Directory
Government Departments

Yukon Statutes and Regulations
Dept. of Health and Social Services
Dept. of Finance
Dept. of Education
Yukon Bureau of Statistics
Women's Directorate



Department responsible for welfare
Health and Social Services

Name of the welfare program
Social Assistance

Yukon Social Assistance Act
(PDF file - 16 pages)
- Yukon Social Assistance Regulation (PDF file - 42 pages)
[ Government of Yukon Legislation ]

Policy Manual
No policy manual.
See the main page of the Social Assistance program for:
* Contact Information
* Frequently Asked Questions
* How to Apply for Social Assistance
* More...

Welfare statistics
See Social Assistance caseload/beneficiary statistics and expenditure information, 1997 to 2014 (further down on the page you're reading presently) --- UPDATED APRIL 1, 2015
Bureau of Statistics (no welfare stats)
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
- See s.18-21 and Schedule A of the S.A. Regulations (PDF file - 144K, 42 pages)

Latest search results on for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Yukon"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
- Social Assistance Reform Complete - May 28/08

[ more Yukon news releases about social assistance ]

For more information about welfare in other Canadian jurisdictions,
see the
Canadian Social Research Links Key Provincial/Territorial Welfare Links page

Yukon Legislative Assembly
- incl. links to : Members of the Legislative Assembly - Order Paper - Progress of Bills - Blues (preliminary Hansard transcript) - Yesterday's Hansard - Hansard

Government of Yukon Legislation - links to statutes, regs, hansard, etc.

Department responsible for welfare
Dept. of Health and Social Services (HSS)

[See the Key Welfare Links in the grey box above. ]

Yukon Social Assistance Regulations (PDF file - 576K, 45 pages)
Order-in--Council 2012/83
(Effective May 2012)

Repealed Social Assistance Regulation (PDF - 145K, 42 pages)
Order-in-Council 2008/68
NOTE: The link to the repealed regulation is for hard-core welfare researchers who will no doubt want to compare the old and the new in detail.
I'm saying this affectionately, because I was a hard-core welfare researcher for close to 30 years, and I *would* have wanted to do a section-by-section crosscheck. I did a quick check of the new regulation, and noted the following changes:
* Sections 24-26 : the old "Appeals" section has been re-named "Review requests" - no formal appeals route for clients after an internal hearing
* Section 56 : benefit levels will be indexed annually in accordance wth the Consumer Price Index.
NOTE : only Quebec and Newfoundland & Labrador already have this commendable indexation provision; let's hope it catches on elsewhere in Canada!
* Schedule A : benefit levels (items of basic maintenance) - rates are increased (by modest percentages)


The 2010 Whitehorse Housing Adequacy Study (PDF - 611K, 88 pages) was designed to address a long-standing need for statistical information on homelessness and housing challenges in the Whitehorse area. While it is not intended to be representative of the whole Whitehorse population, it provides a snapshot of a vulnerable sub-population during a specific time period. (...) The survey was created by the Department of Health and Social Services in partnership with the Yukon Bureau of Statistics and the Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition. (...)

Dimensions of Social Inclusion and Social Exclusion in Yukon 2010 (PDF - 1.3MB, 216 pages) is a rich compilation of data using social indicators such as personal and community assets, access to necessities and participation in society. These documents are the foundation that will provide the information and evidence needed to develop the strategy.


Social Assistance Reform Complete
News Release
May 28, 2008
WHITEHORSE - Health and Social Services Minister Brad Cathers today announced changes to the social assistance regulations that finalize the government's Social Assistance Reform. (...) Changes to the regulations are broad, and include providing an increased incentive to assist recipients in entering the workforce, raising the amounts recipients receive for basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing, and reducing red tape for persons with severe disabilities.
NOTE: this news release includes a Social Assistance Backgrounder that explains changes in the areas of earnings exemptions and services to people with disabilities, and that compares social assistance benefit rates
for single people and for two-adult+two-children families in effect before and after July 2008.
Government of Yukon

Families and Children with Disabilities will Benefit from New Program
December 13, 2007
WHITEHORSE – Yukon children with disabilities and their families will now benefit from a new program announced today by Health and Social Services Minister Brad Cathers. The Services to Children with Disabilities Program will be delivered within the Family and Children’s Services Branch of the department, through a new unit called Family Supports for Children with Disabilities.Increase to Yukon Child Benefit to Help Low-Income Families

Increase to Yukon Child Benefit to Help Low-Income Families
December 6, 2007
WHITEHORSE – To assist low-income Yukoners with the costs of raising their children, Health and Social Services Minister Brad Cathers announced today an increase to the Yukon Child Benefit (YCB).

Proposed Social Assistance Reforms Announced
November 28, 2007
WHITEHORSE – Health and Social Services Minister Brad Cathers today announced proposed changes to social assistance rates and program structures, resulting from the most comprehensive review of social assistance conducted since the program’s inception.
- proposed changes include (among others) increases to social assistance rates, an incentive package to encourage social assistance recipients to enter the workforce and a new program with enhanced services for persons with severe disabilities who are eligible for social assistance.

Related links:

Yukon businesses applaud proposed social assistance changes
November 29
The Yukon's business community gave a thumbs-up Thursday to the territorial government's proposed changes to its social assistance program, although some say more can be done to help assistance recipients stay in the workforce. (...) Health and Social Services Minister Brad Cathers said he is proposing to raise social assistance rates by about 20 per cent, as well as offer financial incentives to encourage recipients to enter the workforce.Cathers said the changes came from a comprehensive review of the territory's social assistance program. The government has to meet with federal authorities and First Nations before the changes can be implemented.

<Begin social program researcher's lament/plea.>
There are some excellent government websites about social assistance in the provinces and territories, but sadly, Yukon's is not one of them. The only social assistance program information that I can find on the Yukon Health and Social Services website is a blurb about the Pioneer Utility Grant for People over 65 and a Frequently-Asked Questions page that barely touches on social assistance program details. (For your info, there were about 1,100 people in receipt of welfare in March of 2005, the latest figures I could find.) For links Yukon welfare caseload figures from 1995 to 2005 as well as to the Yukon Social Assistance Act and Regulations and to Web, news and blog search results pages, check the links in the grey section on this page. On behalf of welfare researchers, may I say that it would be greatly appreciated if the nice folks in Yukon Health and Social Services could update their site to include more info on their social assistance program...
</End social program researcher's lament/plea.>


NOTA : Vous trouverez des liens vers la version française
de tous les documents budgétaires ci-dessous au lien suivant:

Yukon Budget 2015-2016
April 2, 2015

- includes links to the following budget documents:

* 2014-15 Budget Address [PDF - 168K]

* 2014-15 Budget Highlights [PDF - 68K]

* 2014-15 Financial Information [PDF - 412K]

* 2014-15 Projections [PDF - 58K]

* 2014-15 Operation & Maintenance and Capital Estimates

Yukon Finance

Earlier Yukon Budgets


Related link from
Yukon News:
[ ]

Yukon budget breaks a billion, again
By Jacqueline Ronson
March 26, 2014
Premier Darrell Pasloski announced another record budget for the Yukon this week. On Tuesday, he told the Yukon legislature that his government will spend $1.3 billion in the 2014/2015 fiscal year. The government is planning for a $72 million surplus. The territory’s key revenue source remains a federal transfer payment that continues to grow. Total transfers from the government of Canada are expected to top $1 billion for the first time in 2014/2015.

Yukon Finance

Earlier Yukon Budgets


Deloitte : Yukon Budget highlights
March 21, 2013

NOTE: On this page, you'll find information about the latest provincial/territorial budget only.

To avoid unnecessary duplication of budget links on multiple pages, I've moved links to all earlier budgets over to the pages below, organized by fiscal year. The pages below include links to media analysis and selected critique from NGOs on the budgets, and the amount of coverage varies across jurisdictions and over the years.

Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2014
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2013
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2012
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2011
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2010
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2009
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2008

Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2007
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2006
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2005
Go to Canadian Government Budgets 2004


Yukon Bureau of Statistics

Women's Directorate

Other Yukon Sites - Autres sites du Yukon

From the
Caledon Institute of Social Policy:

Social Assistance Summaries 2014 (PDF - 235KB, 49 pages)
Anne Makhoul, March 2015

The informative Social Assistance Statistical Report [ ], published by the federal and provincial/territorial governments, was last released in 2010 and presented 2008 data. In its place, the Caledon Institute will publish a Social Assistance Summaries series as part of its web-based Canada Social Report, which will be operational in spring 2015. In the interim, this publication offers an advance viewing of 12 of Canada’s 13 provincial and territorial Social Assistance programs. Material from Nunavut was not available in time to be included in this paper.
A summary was prepared for each province and territory with input and feedback from government representatives in every jurisdiction. All reports include program descriptions and data on the number of social assistance cases and recipients dating, in most jurisdictions, from 1997 to 2014. The summaries will be updated annually.

Caledon Institute of Social Policy

Ten Things to Know About Homelessness in Canada’s North
March 25, 2015
Nick Falvo on the state of homelessness and housing in Northern Canada:

On March 5 (2015), I gave a presentation on homelessness in Canada’s North at a panel at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Alaska Anthropological Association. The other presenters on the panel were Peter Collings, Carmen Springer, Josh Louwerse and Sally Carraher. My presentation was loosely based on previous research I’ve done in the Northwest Territories (NWT) and the Yukon.
NOTE : This text includes links to over two dozen related resources.

Here are 10 things one should know about homelessness in Canada’s North:
(Click the link above for more on each of the 10 items.)

1. Construction costs are higher in Canada’s North than in most southern jurisdictions.
2. Once housing is built, it deteriorates more quickly in the North than it would in a southern jurisdiction.
3. Operating costs for housing are usually higher in the North.
4. Federal funding for social housing in Canada’s North is declining.
5. There is very little supportive housing in Canada’s North.
6. Conditions in homeless shelters in the North leave much to be desired.
7. There is insufficient ‘harm reduction’ programming in Canada’s North.
8. The “housing first” philosophy is not widely embraced throughout Canada’s North.
9. Access to affordable housing remains a major challenge in Canada’s North.
10. When considering homelessness in Canada’s North, it’s important to understand migration patterns.

Nick Falvo is a PhD Candidate in the School of Public Policy and Administration at Carleton University.

Northern Public Affairs


More reports, atrticles, presentations, etc.
by Nick Falvo
- incl. links to dozens of resources, mostly focusing on homelessness and Canada's North


- Go to the Homelessness and Housing Links page:

Yukon Government Balks at Using Federal Housing Dollars
July 15, 2014
By Nick Falvo
Nick asks why the Yukon Government is leaving federal housing money on the table when 16% of Yukon households are in need of affordable housing.
The Yukon Government recently announced that it will not proceed with a plan to disburse $11.7 million in federal housing dollars to for-profit developers, which would have helped build approximately 100 new rental housing units in Whitehorse. In justifying the surprise decision, the Pasloski government used the pretext that proceeding with the plan would be unfair to other for-profit developers struggling to develop housing without the help of government funding.

Here are 10 things to know about this situation:
(Click the link above to read the complete posting.)
1. Historically in Canada, very little affordable housing - that is, housing that very low-income households can afford - has been built without federal funding.
2. Since roughly the 1980s, for-profit developers across Canada have generally not found it lucrative to develop rental housing.
3. Once upon a time, a Yukon Member of Parliament had a major role in recommending that the federal government terminate financial assistance to for-profit developers.
4. The federal funding that is currently being discussed (i.e. the $11.7 million) was born out of a ‘budget deal’ made between Paul Martin and Jack Layton.
5. A lot of people in Yukon lack affordable housing.
6. Federal funding for social housing in the Yukon is declining.
7. When the Yukon Housing Corporation (as opposed to a for-profit firm) develops housing, the key difference is that now a non-profit entity owns and operates the housing.
8. The Harper government may try to use this recent decision as a political football.
9. One sensible way forward would be to build the units and ‘stack’ some of them with rent supplements.
10. If no for-profit developer is willing to build units on condition that one-third of them be ‘stacked’ with rent supplements, the Yukon Housing Corporation could always develop the units itself.


Nick Falvo is a PhD Candidate in the School of Public Policy and Administration at Carleton University. In 2012, under the supervision of Dr. Frances Abele, Nick wrote a policy report on poverty in the Yukon which can be found here :

Northern Public Affairs
Northern Public Affairs is a new public policy magazine for Northern Canada. Our mandate is to create space for informed policy debate on the topics most relevant to Northerners. Published three times a year, Northern Public Affairs features policy-relevant articles written by, and for, our audience of academics, commentators, current and former politicians, business leaders, public servants and engaged northerners.

Not social research per se, but...
Wow. Welcome to Harperland.

From National Geographic:

Yukon Government Opens Vast Wilderness to Mining
Indigenous leaders, conservation groups vow legal challenge.
January 24, 2014
Canada's Yukon Territory announced on Tuesday that it has opened one of the largest unbroken wilderness areas in North America to mining and mineral exploration. The government's decree stunned indigenous leaders, who support a 2011 plan developed under Yukon land claims treaties that would have maintained the wilderness character of 80 percent of the area, which is known as the Peel watershed region. The government's new plan all but reverses that figure, opening some 71 percent of the watershed to mining.

National Geographic


CBC Coverage:

Yukon releases its Peel River watershed land-use plan calling
for 29 per cent of land to be protected, lower than commission called for
January 21, 2014

Canada's North Beyond 2011 - Conference
October 11-13, 2011
Edmonton, Alberta

Canada’s North Beyond 2011 will assess and debate the critical challenges and opportunities in Canada’s North. We intend to make this Canada’s preeminent event on the North, engaging a wide range of community, business, and Aboriginal leaders and representatives from local, regional, and national government to collaborate on three critical aspects of northern prosperity and sustainability—thriving communities, economic development, and sovereignty and security.
Participate in this unparalleled event, and collaborate with public and private sector leaders from across the country and its northern communities
Conference Board of Canada


Yukon Provincial Election Resources
No set date for the next territorial election
Election Almanac
- complete coverage of federal, provincial and territorial elections in Canada including election results, public opinion polls, ridings and candidates, election news, electoral history, links, and more

- Go to the Political Parties and Elections Links in Canada (Provinces and Territories) page:


May 25, 2009
New resource from the
Canadian Council on Social Development:

Poverty Reduction Policies and Programs in the Yukon (PDF - 1.7MB, 33 pages)
By Natalie Edelson
Poverty Reduction Policies and Programs
Social Development Report Series, 2009
[ Canadian Council on Social Development ]

Also from CCSD :

Poverty Reduction Policies and Programs in Canada (PDF - 341K, 29 pages)
By David I. Hay, Information Partnership

Related links ===> Go to the Anti-poverty Strategies and Campaigns page:

From the
National Council of Welfare (NCW):

NOTE : The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see

The links to the three reports below are functional because the files are copied to my web server.

Over the years, the Council has produced many reports on poverty and welfare, but there are three that stand out in my mind as milestone reports on the history of welfare in Canada, at least since the 1980s.

1. 1987
Welfare in Canada: The Tangled Safety Net
(PDF - 2.7MB, 131 pages)
November 1987
Tangled Safety Net examines the following issues in Canadian social assistance network of programs:
* Complex rules * Needs-testing * Rates of assistance * Enforcement * Appeals * Recommendations
This report is the first comprehensive national analysis of social assistance programs operated by the provincial, territorial and municipal governments. These programs function as the safety net for Canadians and are better known by their everyday name ‘welfare’.

Version française :
Le bien-être social au Canada : Un filet de sécurité troué (PDF - 3Mo., 138 pages)
Novembre 1987
[ NOTA : Si vous trouvez un lien vers ce fichier en français, veuillez communiquer avec moi pour le partager.
Merci! ]


2. 1992
Welfare Reform
(PDF - 2.8MB, 61 pages)
Summer 1992
This report is an update of the 1987 Tangled Safety Net, but it presents information by jurisdiction rather than by issue - covers all provinces and territories.

Version française:
Réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 3,5Mo., 63 pages)


3. 1997
Another Look at Welfare Reform
(PDF - 6.75MB, 134 pages)
Autumn 1997
- an in-depth analysis of changes in Canadian welfare programs in the 1990s. The report focuses on the provincial and territorial reforms that preceded the repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan and those that followed the implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in April 1996.
[Proactive disclosure : I did the research for, and wrote the provincial-territorial section of, this report while I was on a one-year secondment to the Council. Gilles ]

Version française:
Un autre regard sur la réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 8Mo., 148 pages)

National Council of Welfare
[ Conseil national du bien-être social ]
Established in 1969, the Council is an advisory group to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (originally the Minister of Health and Welfare Canada). The mandate of the Council is to advise the Minister regarding any matter relating to social development that the Minister may refer to the Council for its consideration or that the Council considers appropriate.


October 6 (2012) update:
The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see

List of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the third periodic report of Canada : United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (June 10, 1998) 
Yukon Government Response to the U.N. List of Issues




To search the complete
Canadian Social Research Links website ,
use the text box below:

To search ONLY the page you are now reading,
use Ctrl + F to open a search window.


Sign up to receive this free weekly newsletter by e-mail or read it online
(including archives back to January 2005).
Each issue includes all links added to this site during the previous week.
(2800+ subscribers in January 2017)

Site created and maintained by:
Gilles Séguin (This link takes you to my personal page)