Canadian Social Research Links

Work-Life Balance

Sites de recherche sociale au Canada

L'équilibre entre le travail et la vie personnelle

Updated November 27, 2016
Page révisée le 27 novembre 2016

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From Statistics Canada:
[ ]

November 25, 2016
Study: Balancing family and work: Transition to self-employment among new mothers, 2006 to 2011
A new study shows that new mothers have a higher probability of making the transition from paid employment to self-employment than other women.

Abstract / Executive summary / Complete report (HTML)

PDF Version (34 pages)

Past issues of The Daily
Select day / month / year to access issues of The Daily going back to 1995.

New from the
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU):

March 7, 2015
Men, fathers, and work-family balance
11 Mar 2015 | United States
Brief in the Centre for American Progress outlines that “work-life issues such as workplace flexibility, paid leave, and pay equity should very much be seen as issues affecting men directly, not just in their roles as partners, fathers, colleagues, and friends of women”. It was identified that being that it is the 21st century workplaces need to meet the needs of families by increasing the access for both men and women to policies such as flexible work, paid family leave and paid sick days. The brief concluded by “breaking down the gendered notions and stigmas around so-called “women’s work” and “men’s work,” as well as associated with caregiving can create a more equitable and better-balanced work-life experience for all American workers

Work-Life Balance: Best of the series
June 2012
The Globe and Mail

Revisiting work-life issues in Canada: The 2012 national study on balancing work and caregiving in Canada
19 Dec 2012 | Canada
Study of 25,000 Canadians finds that one in three respondents can be considered to be in the sandwich generation struggling to balance time each week in work, childcare and eldercare.

The complete study:

Revisiting Work-Life Issues in Canada : The 2012 National Study
on Balancing Work and Caregiving in Canada
(PDF - 148K, 14 pages)
By Linda Duxbury, PhD, and Christopher Higgins, PhD

Related links:

Why not talk about work?
The topic is critical to all. Which is why the powerful pretend it's not worth exploring.
By Murray Dobbin
December 17, 2012
Most families now carry record high debt and Canadians work hundreds of hours more per year than most of their European counterparts. Canada has one of the highest ratios of low paying jobs in the OECD and that trend can only get worse. Canadian companies try to increase productivity not by investing in training, technology or better management systems but by driving down wages and salaries and forcing unpaid overtime.

The Tyee
[ ]


HealthyWorkplaces --- Innovations and insights for Creating High Performing Workplaces

What's new from the
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU):

March 9, 2012
Work it! A game about work, life and balance
8 Mar 2012 | Canada
Web-based video game from the Canadian Labour Congress highlights the challenges women face in balancing work and family life and links back to web-based resources about the real-life challenges facing working women in Canada.

Hennessy's Index: Gone Fishin'
July 29, 2011
Hennessy's Index is a monthly listing of numbers, written by the CCPA's Trish Hennessy, about Canada and its place in the world. This August, Hennessy's Index looks at vacation time - how do Canadian vacations stack up?

Earlier editions of Hennessy's Index
* Canada vs the OECD (July 2011)
* Minimum Wage vs Living Wage (June 2011)
* Election Jawdroppers (May 2011)
* Democracy (April 2011)
* Security/Insecurity (March 2011)
* Inequality (February 2011)

Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA)

From The Daily
[Statistics Canada]:

July 12, 2011
General Social Survey: Time use, 2010
Canadians who performed unpaid work, such as housework, childcare, and civic and voluntary activities, reported spending 4 hours 4 minutes on these activities on any given day in 2010, up 8 minutes from 1998.
General Social Survey - 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians - Product main page*
This publication provides an overview of the time use of Canadians produced from the 2010 General Social Survey on Time Stress and Well-being. It presents information on participation rates and average amount of time spent on various activities and compares recent data with information obtained from a similar survey conducted in 1998. In addition, it examines Canadians' perceptions of time stress.
[ * Click "View" for the latest issue of this publication; click "Chronological" index for earlier editions. ]

Related subjects:
* Labour
* Commuting to work
* Society and community
* Time use


July 12, 2011
Study: Generational change in paid and unpaid work, 2010
Using General Social Survey - Time use data from 1986, 1998 and 2010 this article examines the changes in the participation in, and time spent on paid work and unpaid household work of individuals aged 20 to 29 from three generations—late baby boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. The final section looks at the distribution of time spent on paid and unpaid work within dual-earner couples.

Complete article:

Generational change in paid and unpaid work
by Katherine Marshall
July 12, 2011
(129K, 14 pages)

Canadian Social Trends - Product main page*
This publication discusses the social, economic, and demographic changes affecting the lives of Canadians
[ * Click "View" for the latest issue of this periodical;
click "Chronological index" for earlier editions. ]

Statistics Canada

Canadians, especially women,
caught in time crunch between work, family, personal needs

By Michael Shapcott
June 15, 2010
Canadians, especially women, are caught in a time crunch and the trend has been getting worse over the past 15 years, says a new report by the Canadian Index of Wellbeing (CIW), Caught in the Time Crunch: Time Use, Leisure and Culture in Canada.
- includes highlights of the report

The report:

Caught in the Time Crunch: Time Use, Leisure and Culture in Canada (PDF - 2.8MB, 38 pages)
June 15, 2010
This report that follows presents a summary and highlights of research studies in two inter-related quality of life categories:
• Time Use; and
• Leisure and Culture.
Canadian Index of Wellbeing (CIW)
The CIW provides unique insights into the quality of life of Canadians – overall, and in specific areas that matter: our standard of living, our health, the quality of our environment, our education and skill levels, the way we use our time, the vitality of our communities, our participation in the democratic process, and the state of our leisure and culture.

Other CIW Reports

From The Daily [Statistics Canada]:

Changes in parental work time and earnings
October 2009
Full article:
(218K, 12 pages)
Between 1980 and 2005, family work time increased for most families with children, especially for families located at the bottom and in the middle of the earnings distribution. However, this increase occurred against a backdrop of a stronger increase in earnings for families at the top of the earnings distribution. This study finds that high earnings families earned more in 2005 than in 1980 for a given amount of family work time, likely because of higher wages.

Work–life balance of older workers
October 2009
Full article:
(209K, 12 pages)
Although it has received some attention in the Canadian literature, the issue of work–life balance of older workers remains largely understudied. This article addresses that gap using data from the 2005 General Social Survey. Overall, 14% of Canadian workers age 55 and over reported being dissatisfied with their work–life balance in 2005. The sources of conflict most frequently cited were too much time on the job and too little time for the family. Work–life balance dissatisfaction was associated with having a disability, providing elder care, working long hours, occupying a managerial position and being a woman. At the same time, having an employed partner, being self-employed and enjoying one’s job reduced the probability of work–life conflict. When the self-selection of older individuals out of employment was taken into account, the risk of work–life conflict did not vary with age.

Related subjects
o Labour
o Hours of work and work arrangements
o Wages, salaries and other earnings

Statistics Canada

Family work patterns
August 2009
* Highlights
* Full article: HTML | PDF
(194K, 12 pages)
Women’s labour market participation has increased substantially over recent decades, creating challenges for families in balancing work–life responsibilities. The examination of family work patterns revealed significant differences in annual hours of work between families with and those without children.
August 25, 2009
Perspectives on Labour and Income - August 2009 issue

Related subjects:
o Families, households and housing
o Family types
o Household characteristics
o Income, pensions, spending and wealth
o Household, family and personal income
o Low income and inequality
o Labour
o Hours of work and work arrangements

From the Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU):

The family work week
29 Apr 09
- Report from Statistics Canada on family work hours, patterns and statistics from 1976-2008.

Cost-benefit review of work-life balance practices-2009
22 Apr 09
- Report from the Centre for Families, Work and Well-Being, University of Guelph on how best to support employees facing diverse caregiving and personal responsibilities.

Get 'family-friendly,' or recession will last longer
Employers, government must repair work-life balance, major study concludes
By Kathryn May
January 22, 2009
OTTAWA — Canada may not pull out of an economic slump unless governments and employers deal with the crushing workloads that are forcing a growing number of Canadians to delay or have fewer children, says a leading expert in balancing work and family life.
The Ottawa Citizen


Work-Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium:
Key Findings and Recommendations From The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study
Report Six

December 2008 (PDF file date)
By Dr. Linda Duxbury and Dr. Chris Higgins
Complete report:
HTML version
PDF version
(2.6MB, 76 pages)

Executive Summary
The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study and the reports produced from this research to date have given business and labour leaders, policy-makers and academics an objective 'big picture' view of this issue. This report, the last in the series of six reports, provides a summary of the key findings and recommendations coming from this research program.

Earlier reports in this series:

Report One: The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study
March 2002
- puts the series into context by describing the sample of employees who participated in the research and examining the various risk factors associated with work-life conflict.

Report Two: Work-life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium: A Status Report
October 2003
- makes the business case for change by looking at how high levels role overload, work to family interference, family to work interference, caregiver strain and spillover from work to family affect employers, employees and their families.

Report Three: Exploring the Link between Work-Life Conflict and the Use of Canada's Health Care System
March 2004
- focuses on how work-life conflict affects Canada's health care system (i.e. quantifies the system demands associated with high work-life conflict and attempts to put some kind of dollar value on how much it costs Canada to treat the health consequences of such conflict).

Report Four: Who Is at Risk? Predictors of High Work-Life Conflict
September 2005
- identifies key risk factors for role overload, work interferes with family, family interferes with work and caregiver strain.

Report Five: Reducing Work-Life Conflict: What Works? What Doesn't?
August 2008
- examines what employers, employees and their families can do to reduce work-life conflict.

Health Canada
[ The survey was commissioned by Health Canada
to examine how Canadians are coping with the demands of their work and family lives. ]

Recent releases from The Vanier Institute of the Family:

Already-Stressed Family Budgets To Take The Brunt Of Recession (PDF - 21K, 2 pages)
News Release
OTTAWA, January 22, 2009
A Vanier Institute of the Family study released today predicts the effects of the current economic downturn will be felt around the kitchen table for years to come. In the 10th edition of its seminal study The Current State of Family Finances – 2008 Report, the Institute puts the current situation into context and finds that it has taken Canadian families a long time to recover from past recessions.

Highlights (PDF - 23K, 1 page)
- Recessions are very hard on families.
- Debt loads are in the danger zone.
- Spending and debt rise much faster than incomes.
- The wealth that went up has now come down.
- Unattached individuals aged 18-64 are the forgotten poor.
- Family Finances report celebrates its 10th anniversary

Complete report:

The Current State of Canadian Family Finances : 2008 Report (PDF - 668K, 29 pages)
January 2009
by Roger Sauvé
People Patterns Consulting
[ previous reports in the same series - back to 1999 ]


Work/Family Balance: What do we Really Know? (PDF - 272K, 29 pages)
By Jacques Barrette, Ph.D.
January 15, 2009
The last two decades has seen a proliferation of research on the nature, scope and, implications of work/family conflict. This paper reviews much of this research and endeavours to (1) explain the fundamental causes of the work/family conflict, (2) demonstrate the impacts of this imbalance on families and organizations, (3) discuss the challenges families face, and (4) present possible strategies to improve the situation.


Family Life and Work Life: An Uneasy Balance (PDF - 272K, 29 pages)
By Roger Sauvé
January 15, 2009
Families are changing and so are the organizations for which they work. Families need and want the work that employers provide and employers need the workers to produce goods and services for sale and distribution. It is a two-way street. This report highlights the dynamic relationship between these two entities and examines whether or not Canadians are achieving an acceptable balance between family life and work life. The result seems to be an uneasy balance.


Fascinating Families (PDF - 83K, 1 page)
January 15, 2009
This issue of Fascinating Families is based on the above report, Family Life and Work Life: An Uneasy Balance

Earlier issues of Fascinating Families <=== links to 13 issues back to October 2007
Fascinating Families is a web feature that builds on VIF’s expertise in monitoring family trends and in making complex statistics accessible and understandable to a wide audience. Published on the 15th of each month, Fascinating Families highlights timely, family-related facts and uses a “family lens” to frame a brief discussion of the implications for families in Canada.


Vanier Institute of the Family
The Vanier Institute of the Family, established in 1965 under the patronage of Their Excellencies Governor-General Georges P. Vanier and Madame Pauline Vanier, is a national, charitable organization dedicated to promoting the well-being of Canadian families. It is governed by a volunteer board with regional representation from across Canada.

March 18, 2008
Study: Hours polarization revisited, 1997 to 2006
Fewer full-time Canadian workers are putting in long hours on the job, but the decline has occurred mostly among men and older workers, according to a new study. The study, published today in Perspectives on Labour and Income, showed that in 2006, full-time workers put in 40.8 hours on the job on average, down from 41.5 hours in 1997.
[ Hours polarization revisited, March 2008 ]
Perspectives on Labour and Income
(incl. links to earlier issues]
[Statistics Canada]:

February 21, 2008
Study: How families respond to layoffs, 1987 to 2001
Married women in at least some Canadian families were able to adjust to their husband's layoff by increasing their own employment income during the 1990s, a new study suggests.The study, published today in the Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, assessed whether the earnings of wives and teenagers increased in response to layoffs experienced by husbands between 1987 and 2001.
Executive summary
Complete study paper
(PDF file - 438K, 37 pages)
The Daily
[Statistics Canada]

New from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development:

Improved childcare policies needed to achieve better work/life balance, says OECD
News Release
November 29, 2007
Getting family-friendly policies right will help reduce poverty, promote child development, enhance equity between men and women and stem the fall in birth-rates, according to a new OECD report. Babies and Bosses, Reconciling Work and Family Life compares the different approaches that the 30 OECD countries take to help parents balance their work and family commitments.

Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life:
A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries

The Babies and Bosses reviews of work and family reconciliation analysed policies and family outcomes in Australia, Denmark and the Netherlands (OECD, 2002); Austria, Ireland and Japan (OECD, 2003); New Zealand, Portugal and Switzerland (OECD, 2004); and Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom (OECD, 2005). This report, the last in the series, synthesises these findings and extends the scope to include other OECD countries. Based on OECD-wide indicators, it examines tax/benefit policies, parental leave systems, child and out-of-school-hours care support, and workplace practices that help determine parental labour market outcomes and family formation across the OECD.

Babies and Bosses (Vol. 4): Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom
Finding a suitable work/family life balance is a challenge that all parents face. Many parents and children in Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom are happy with their existing work and care outcomes. However, many others feel seriously constrained in one way or another, and their personal well-being suffers as a consequence.

Key Outcomes of Canada compared to OECD average

Selected Tables and Charts (Excel format) from Babies and Bosses (Vol. 4): Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom


This book is part of the Babies and Bosses series, consisting of comparative studies of work and family reconciliation policies.
To get a more comprehensive picture of reconciliation policies, you can consult the first three volumes:
- Australia, Denmark and the Netherlands (volume 1) , which was published in 2002
- Austria, Ireland and Japan (volume 2), which was published in 2003
- New Zealand, Portugal and Switzerland (volume 3), which was released in 2004


Main OECD Social Policy Activities in 2006-2007
- click the link above for info about the activities listed below (incl. links to many key documents), or click a link below
* Family Policies (employment-oriented)
* Making Work Pay (ongoing)
* Policies to support and integrate the disabled of working age
* Pension system monitoring (ongoing)
* Development of social indicators
* Income Distribution and Poverty

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Reducing Work-Life Conflict: What Works and What Doesn't (PDF file - 3.4MB, 212 pages)
By Dr. Chris Higgins, Dr. Linda Duxbury and Sean Lyons
*October 2007
HMMM - this link is dead (Nov. 11/07 ) ===> Try going to the Research Findings page to see if you can access the report from there

HTML version
PDF version
(PDF file - 345K, 30 page)

Health Canada

<begin date rant.>
* Hey, Health Canada --- how about dating your reports???
I couldn't find a single date in this entire 212-page report.
According to the Properties menu of the PDF file, this report was produced in either September or October 2007.
<end date rant.>

This is the fifth report in a series of six.

Links to the four earlier reports:
* Report One: The 2001 National Work–Life Conflict Study
* Report Two: Work–Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium: A Status Report
* Report Three: Exploring the Link between Work–Life Conflict and the Use of Canada’s Health Care System
* Report Four: Who Is at Risk? Predictors of High Work–Life Conflict
* Report Five: Reducing Work–Life Conflict: What Works? What Doesn’t?
Yet to come:
* Report Six : Work–Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium: Key Findings and Recommendations from the 2001 National Work–Life Conflict Study
Public Health Agency of Canada

Governing work life intersections in Australia over the life course: policy and prospects
Barbara Pocock
Posted 18-07-2007
This paper from the 2007 Australian Social Policy Conference examines the current situation of Australians as they put together their work and larger lives, under a particular policy regime. Pocock argues that an ethic of care needs to accompany Australia's well developed ethic of work, and that new arrangements are necessary to govern their simultaneous realisation.
Centre for Work+Life, University of South Australia

Mothers and fathers with young children: paid employment, caring and wellbeing
Jennifer Baxter, Matthew Gray, Michael Alexander, Lyndall Strazdins and Michael Bittman
Posted 16-07-2007
This paper examines how the use of child care, the time parents spend with children, and parental wellbeing relate to parental employment.
Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (Australia)

Work, life and time: the Australian work and life index 2007
Barbara Pocock, Natalie Skinner and Philippa Williams
Posted 12-07-2007
Work affects most working Australians beyond the workplace. Over half employees surveyed find that work sometimes, often or almost always affects their activities beyond the workplace (52.6% of the total) and even more find it regularly keeps them from spending the amount of time they would like with family or friends (60.7%).
Centre for Work+Life, University of South Australia

What's New from The Daily [Statistics Canada]:

May 15, 2007
Study: Workaholics and time perception, 2005
One out of every three Canadians identifies themselves as a workaholic, and these individuals are much more likely to be dissatisfied with the balance between their work and family time than other workers, a new study has found. The study, published today in the May online edition of Canadian Social Trends, used data from the 2005 General Social Survey (GSS) to examine whether quality of life is different for workers who describe themselves as workaholics than for those who do not self-identify as workaholics.

Complete study:

Time escapes me: Workaholics and time perception
By Leslie-Anne Keown
PDF (75K, 5 pages)

February 13, 2007
Study: Time with the family, 2005
Spending more time at work and less time with the family? You're not alone, according to a new study that examines the time Canadian workers spend with family members during a typical workday. The study, published today in Canadian Social Trends, found that on average workers spent 45 minutes less with their family during workdays in 2005 than they did two decades earlier. Based on a 260-day work year, that amounts to 195 hours less, or the equivalent of about five 40-hour work weeks.

Complete study:

Time spent with family during a typical workday, 1986 to 2005
by Martin Turcotte
This study examines the time workers spend with family members during a typical workday. Using data from four different cycles of the General Social Survey on time use, it documents the evolution of the average time spent with family between 1986 and 2005. In particular, it accounts for factors that can contribute to an understanding of these changes.
HTML version
PDF version
(105K, 10 pages)

Links to Canadian Social trends Articles by Subject
Links to earlier issues of Canadian Social Trends

Work hours instability
December 2006
Andrew Heisz and Sébastien LaRochelle-Côté
Discussions related to work hours are typically driven by cross-sectional studies. Much less is known about the longitudinal perspective and the persistence of long hours or periods of underemployment. The annual hours of employees are examined over a five-year period to determine what proportion experience variable work years and how their well-being is affected.
PDF version (409K, 20 pages) - this link opens a PDF file containing both articles above

Perspectives on Labour and Income

International Mobility: Patterns of
Exit and Return of Canadians, 1982 to 2003
(PDF file - 365K, 61 pages)
November 17, 2006
This paper exploits the unique strengths of the tax-based Longitudinal Administrative Database to measure the flows of Canadians to other countries and the patterns of return over the period from 1982 to 2003.
Executive Summary (HTML)

Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series
- links to 100+ research papers going back to 1994

What's New from the Institute for Research on Public Policy:

The Use of Family Friendly Workplace Practices in Canada (PDF file - 526K, 42 pages)
September 2006
The increase in two earner households has changed the structure of the labour market, presenting employees, government and firms with new challenges. These changes have spurred an increasing interest in
new workplace practices and policies that may respond to the requirements of the New Economy. Research in the area covers a variety of fields in social sciences and has mainly focused on the availability of benefits to workers with families. However, a natural question that has only received passing attention is to what extent these benefits are being used by families.
News Release (PDF file - 35K, 2 pages)

Toward Squaring the Circle: Work-Life Balance
and the Implications for Individuals, Firms and Public Policy
(144K, 28 pages)
* Introduction
* Defining and Framing Work-Life Balance
*Demographic and Labour Market Trends
* Work Hours, Constraints on Choice and the Life Cycle
* Work-Life Balance in the Context of Labour Policy
* Conclusion

Working for Working Parents:
The Evolution of Maternity and Parental Benefits in Canada
(PDF file - 218K, 42 pages)
May 2006
Table of Contents:
* Introduction
* Setting the Stage: The Changing Labour Market and Social Context for Families with Young Children, 1973-2002
* A Short History of Maternity and Parental Benefits Policy in Canada
* Sample Benefit Calculations for Five Historical Periods and the Quebec Program
* Statistical Evidence on Benefit Receipt
* What Are the Goals of the Federal Program and How Well Are They Being Achieved?
* Where to From Here? Discussion and Recommendations

Take Back Your Time Day - October 24
Take Back Your Time is a major U.S./Canadian initiative to challenge the epidemic of overwork, over-scheduling and time famine that now threatens our health, our families and relationships, our communities and our environment. October 24th Is Take Back Your Time Day.
- incl. links to: Home | Join Our E-Mail List | Handbook | Contact | News & Events | Media About TBYT Day | Four Windows Of Time | Public Policy Agenda | Support Time Day

Getting punched : The job and family clock : It's time for flexible work for workers of all wages, (PDF file - 159K, 32 pages) J. Levin-Epstein, Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, July (2006).
Council for Employment, Income and Social Cohesion - Paris
Conseil de l'emploi, des revenus et de la cohésion sociale - CERC[version française]

-Report from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development recommends “free early education for all three and four year-olds.”


Report from the Institute for Research on Public Policy considers “whether and how problems of work-life balance run across the whole spectrum of the working population.”

Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU) - University of Toronto

From The Scout Report, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (U.S.):

Study finds that full-time stay-at-homes would make over $130,000
May 3, 2006
NEW YORK - A full-time stay-at-home mother would earn $134,121 a year if paid for all her work, an amount similar to a top U.S. ad executive, a marketing director or a judge, according to a study released on Wednesday.

What a life: Working 9 to 5?and 6 to midnight..

What is Mom's Job Worth?

Mommy Talk: Misconceptions about Working Moms

Digital History: Mothers and Fathers in America: Looking Backward, Looking Forward

Working Moms Refuge

Over the past hundred years, a number of economic and social transformations have resulted in dramatic changes to the American family structure. While debates about this complex topic rages on, one thing is certain: Stay-at-home moms do a great deal of work, and the work encompasses everything from managing household finances to counseling children (and sometimes even their own spouse). This week, the staff at Waltham-based released an intriguing study that shows that a full-time stay-at-home mother would earn $134,121 a year if she were paid for all the diverse tasks she performs. This amount is similar to the annual wage earned by an ad executive or judge. In order to tabulate these predicted earnings, the survey administrators calculated the earning power of the jobs that 'most closely comprise a mother's role?. Of course, this included such professions as janitor, van driver, psychologists, day-care teacher, as well as several others. Some of the prevailing sentiment among mothers upon hearing about the study can be summed up best by the forthright remarks made by Dr. Laura Riley, a mother of two: "There is no price tag-I'm priceless."

The first link [above] leads to coverage of this story from, complete with a video commentary by newscaster, Lisa Daniels. The second link will take users to a piece from this Wednesday?s Boston Herald that offers additional insight into the study. The third link takes users to the special page on the wages of stay-at-homes created by The fourth link whisks users away to a very interesting commentary by Marci Laehr (a working mom) on the debates about whether or not to stay-at home full-time after the birth of a child. Visitors can also chime in with their own opinions here, if they so desire. The fifth link leads to a fine essay offered by Professor Steven Mintz of the University of Utah on the changing roles of mothers and fathers in America over the past few hundred years. The final link, appropriately enough, leads to a bit of an electronic refuge for working moms. Here users will find tips for single moms seeking to maintain some balance between their careers and their family life.

The six links and the review above are from The Scout Report,
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2006.

Related Link:

Mom Salary Wizard
"Are you wondering what mom should be paid for her work as mom? has now valuated the "mom job" of both the Working and Stay at Home Mom! We consulted Stay at Home and Working Moms to determine the top 10 jobs that make up a mom's job description. If paid, Stay at Home Moms would earn $134,121 annually (up from 2005's salary of $131,471). Working Moms would earn $85,876 annually for the "mom job" portion of their work, in addition to their actual "work job" salary."

Work-Life Balance in Canadian Workplaces
"This website has been created to help organizations design and implement supportive programs and policies facilitating work-life balance. By reducing work-life struggles, individuals can enjoy a healthier lifestyle while improving productivity at work. A first section allows employers, unions, managers and human resources practitioners to access the latest information and examples of best practices that enhance work-life balance for their employees. A second section highlights the issues of an aging workforce."
Labour Program - Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Selected Publications:

Work-Related Child-Care Centres in Canada - 2001
March 2001

Work and Family Provisions in Canadian Collective Agreements

Work, Family and Community: Key Issues and Directions for Future Research

Voices of Canadians: Seeking Work-Life Balance

Work-Life Balance in Canada: A Report to Ministers Responsible for Labour in Canada

Minister Bradshaw announces release of new report on work-life balance
News Release
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
January 14, 2003
"The report shows that employees increasingly see time, or what they perceive as a lack of time, to deal with the demands of work and home as a major source of conflict. The report reviews and analyzes written comments from participants in The National Study on Balancing Work, Family and Lifestyle conducted by Dr. Duxbury and Dr. Higgins for Health Canada."

Voices of Canadians: Seeking Work-Life Balance
by Linda Duxbury, Christopher Higgins and Donna Coghill
January 2003

Provincial and Territorial
Labour Market and Social Services Ministers
Meet in Quebec to Discuss Work-Family Balance
Provincial-Territorial Meeting of the Forum of Labour Market Ministers
and Ministers responsible for Social Services
La Malbaie, Quebec - August 22-24, 2004
"La Malbaie, August 22, 2004 -- Quebec Minister of Employment, Social Solidarity and Family Welfare, Claude Béchard invited his colleagues, provincial and territorial Labour Market and Social Services Ministers to Quebec for a special meeting: - Labour Market in Tune with Families. Assisted by distinguished speakers from the public and private sectors and the academic community, the ministers discussed work/family balance and the initiatives that could be taken to promote it."
Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat

Related Link:

Forum of Labour Market Ministers - from the Social Development Canada website

National Study On Balancing Work, Family And Lifestyle

Report Three - Exploring the Link Between Work-Life Conflict and Demands on Canada's Health Care System
March 2004

Report Two - Work-Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium: A Status Report
October 2003

Report One - The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study: Report One
March 2002

Public Health Agency of Canada

Workplace Well-being and Work/Life Balance in the Public Service
- incl. links to info about:
Employment Mobility - Flexible Working Arrangements (Flexible Hours of Work, Part-time Employment, Telework Policy, Variable Work Week) - Information and Referral Services for Child Care - Leave with Income Averaging Policy - Pre-Retirement Transition Leave Policy - Self-Funded Leave - Workplace Day Care Centres - Workplace Fitness Programs - Other Resources on Workplace Well-being and Work/Life Balance
Treasury Board Secretariat

Other Resources on Workplace Well-being and Work/Life Balance in the Public Service
* A Day In the Life of the Public Service of Canada Focus on Workplace Well-being
* A Fine Balance, a Manager’s Guide to Workplace Well-being
* Annotated Bibliography – Workplace Well-being
* APEX Study, 2002: The Health Status of Executives in the Public Service of Canada - PDF
* HR Strategies In Times of Change: An Inventory of Initiatives (Special Edition 2002)
* Telework Learning Module
* The Wellness Resource Centre
* Towards an Exemplary Workplace - Our Obligation to Promote and Ensure Work/Life Balance in the Federal Public Service
* Voices of Canadians: Seeking Work-Life Balance
* Wellness: A Balanced Way of Life
* Workplace Well-being- The Challenge, Report of the COSO Sub-Committee on Workplace Well-being, September 2000
* Pride, Recognition & Workplace Well-Being Conference - pdf format

Human Resources and Social Development Canada Public Consultations Website
Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) is committed to consulting with Canadians on the issues that affect their daily lives. Through consultations, the department gains a greater understanding of the perspectives of a wide range of citizens, stakeholders and experts and therefore develops better, more informed and more effective policies and programs for Canadians.
Your opinion matters (bolding added). We invite you to visit this site regularly to learn more about our consultation activities and how you can get involved."

Consultations in progress:
* Canada Student Loans Program Online Consultation
(Not exactly "in progress" - the consultation ran from September 7 to 28, 2007.)

Public Consultations Reports:
* Creation of Child Care Spaces (summer 2006)
(this is the second element of the Universal Child Care Plan, which also includes the Universal Child Care Benefit.)
* Post Secondary Education and Training Online Consultation
(summer 2006)

Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC)

Related Links:

For a list of consultations currently underway in other federal departments, please visit the
Government of Canada’s Consulting with Canadians website
* Consultations in progress

<begin rant>

If my opinion matters, as per the intro to your consultations website, at least you could have the decency to leave links to completed consultations on your website.
In the summer of 2005, Social Development Canada (as HRSDC was known at that time) launched a public consultations website [ ].
During the course of that summer and fall, SDC also launched three separate consultations (see below) - for persons with disabilities, seniors and caregivers.
All three consultations have vanished from the HRSDC website. You can't even find them using the HRSDC site search.
I understand that (a) the consultation period is long past, (b) that Steve Harper's Tories (Canada's Old New Government) took over the reigns of power early in 2006, and (c) that new governments like to build new websites.
Oh wait - never mind.
That explains it : New Government, new website, dump the old stuff, eh...

Internet Archive to the rescue!
Click the link in the previous line, then copy and paste this URL [ ] into the box called "The Wayback Machine" in the centre of the page.
The results page is a collection of a dozen links to snapshots of the complete SDC consultations website; the latest link (Feb. 2007) appears below.

Here's a link to the (HR)SDC Public Consultation site
as it existed in February of 2007

Click the link above; on the next page that appears, click the links in left-hand margin of the page to go to the main consultation page for any one of the three missing consultations.

HINT: the "Resource Area" for each consultation contains links to some excellent related online resources, including: General Documents - Outcome Documents from Roundtables - Information on Government of Canada Programs - Government of Canada Publications - Government of Canada Seniors-Related Web Sites

Persons with Disabilities Consultation Internet Archive version (02/07)
"In a world of 'full participation', persons with disabilities would have equal access to the physical environments in which we work, live and play. Media and information would be equally available to those with sight, hearing, dexterity or mental disabilities..."

Resource Area - Internet Archive version (02/07)


Seniors Consultation - Internet Archive version (02/07)
While Canadian seniors today enjoy more supports and services than ever before, many still face important challenges in areas such as health, financial security, public safety, housing, and social participation. Not surprisingly, the thought of living as a senior holds promise for some, and uncertainty for others. (...)

Resource Area - Internet Archive version (02/07)


Caregivers Consultation - Internet Archive version (02/07)
Across the country, Canadians are caring for members of their families, their neighbours and their friends. Each caregiving situation is unique, and each caregiving relationship is different.

Resource Area - Internet Archive version (02/07)

</end rant>

Centre for Families Work and Well-Being
"The Centre for Families, Work and Well-Being is committed to using its research and teaching expertise to promote individual and family well-being, responsive and productive work environments, and strong, sustainable communities.(...) The Centre for Families, Work and Well-Being was founded in 1998 at the University of Guelph in the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences. The Centre is an innovative, interdisciplinary research and educational centre responding to dramatic changes occurring over the last decades."

Links to Online Resources
Categories : Our Favourite Work-Life Sites * Childcare * Parenting * Social Policy & Research Organizations * Human Resources Links * Workplace Options * Aging & Caregiving * Health & Wellness Promotion * Government Organizations * Managing for Work-Life * Women & Work

June 21, 2005
Study: Whither the workweek?, 2000 to 2004
"Between 2000 and 2003, the average annual number hours of work, as estimated by the Labour Force Survey (LFS), gradually declined by 70 hours, which is the equivalent of two weeks of work or 1.4 hours per week per worker.
This decline was surprising since employment continued to be uncommonly strong despite slower economic growth than in the late 1990s. In fact, between 2000 and 2004, employment increased 8.1%, while the number of hours worked rose only 4.3%. Such a differential was unprecedented."
Statistics Canada

Work Family Tips - "Families Helping Families"
- incl. links to : find a tip - leave a tip - employers talk - what's new - resources - feedback
"Balancing work and family is difficult. This is a place for you to share what has worked for your family. Looking for ideas? Take a quick look at tips others have posted by clicking on find a tip. Have a winning tip to share? Click on leave a tip. We're new and we want to hear how we're doing. You could win a prize for leaving tips and/or giving feedback over the next few months.
Brought to you by the Canadian Child Care Federation with funding by The J.W. McConnell Family Foundation

Conciliation travail-famille : quand les pays dits « libéraux » s'en mêlent - (PDF file - 60Ko., 5 pages)
by Caroline Beauvais and Pascale Dufour
Policy Options - March 2004 Issue
[ Institute for Research on Public Policy ]

Canadian Policy Research Networks
"CPRN's mission is to create knowledge and lead public debate on social and economic issues important to the well-being of Canadians. Our goal is to help make Canada a more just, prosperous, and caring society"

CPRN's research is organized under four Networks - Family, Work, Health and Public Involvement.
The work-life balance dimension cuts across many of CPRN's 17 research themes.

Work-life Balance – How the Regions Stack Up
August 26, 2005
How well do Canadian workers balance their roles as employee, spouse, and/or parent? Are there differences between regions in Canada?
New indicators on CPRN’s innovative Web site – – provide some answers. This is the second set of indicators on Work-Life Balance by Region in Canada drawn from the groundbreaking research report Where to Work in Canada? An Examination of Regional Differences in Work Life Practices by Linda Duxbury (Carleton University) and Chris Higgins (University of Western Ontario).
The updates focus on the themes of Work-Life Conflict and Family Outcomes. We examine four indicators:
- role overload;
- role interference (work interference with family, and family interference with work);
- caregiver strain;
- family impact – on plans for family size and the timing of children.
For these and dozens of other indicators on the quality of Canadian workplaces, visit the Web site at

Related Link:

Where To Work in Canada? An Examination of Regional Differences in Work Life Practices (PDF file - 294K, 103 pages)
Linda Duxbury and Chris Higgins
September 2003
Report commissioned by the BC Work-Life Summit 2003.. 103 pp.
draws on the 2001 National Study on Balancing Work and Family, in which 28,538 employees from a wide cross-section of industries and economic sectors [private, public, non-profit], and from every province took part."

CPRN Work Network

Work/Life Balance: The Regional Perspective (PDF file - 82K, 3 pages)
April 29, 2005
"...conflicts between the demands of the workplace and those of the family loom large when it comes to job satisfaction. In fact, work/life conflict has increased in the past decade. Today, a significant proportion of our workforce, both professional and non-professional, has trouble balancing the roles of employee, spouse, parent and caregiver to ageing relatives. This matters, because the resultant stress undermines health, productivity and a number of other factors that affect our quality of life and economic competitiveness. Does work/life balance vary from one region of the country to another? The answer is yes, in a number of important respects.

Work- Life Balance by Region in Canada

Quality Employment Indicators - April 2005
"The first indicators deal with: Flexibility in the workplace · Management support · Organizational culture.
Future indicators will cover the following: · Work/life conflict,· Family outcomes, · Organizational outcomes, and · Employee well-being."
Source: (CPRN)

How Canada Stacks Up: The Quality of Work – An International Perspective
December 19, 2003
by Richard Brisbois
"... compares workplaces in Canada, the U.S. and the member nations of the European Union, in terms of four dimensions of job quality: work/life balance; health and well-being; skills development; and career and employment security. An additional indicator on overall satisfaction with working conditions is presented separately.
[Click on "Download" to open the full report]

Balance tops list of job desires : Life outside beats money and job title, poll says (PDF file - 445K, 1 page)
[scanned G&M article]
May 7, 2003
The Globe and Mail

Vanier Institute of the Family (VIF)

Creative Solutions to Work, Life and Well-Being:
Nine Case Studies

Press Release
October 22, 2005
"Ottawa—The reasons why organizations need to address work-life issues have been well-documented over the past several decades. But what does work-life balance look like in an actual organization? Does a healthy workplace attract, and more importantly, retain its workforce? Does absenteeism drop? Does the company save money? The Vanier Institute of the Family decided to explore these questions through case studies of organizations that have been recognized for their achievements in creating healthy workplaces."

Complete report:

Conversations on Work and Well-Being
"The following pages present nine case studies of large and small organizations from the private, public and community sectors that have made the well-being of their workforce a priority. Each study tells a unique story about the organization's inventive strategy to create a healthy workplace. There is no one-size-fits-all answer. Each organization has come up with a unique approach that respects both the needs of the enterprise and the needs of its employees."

Related Links from the Conversations on Work and Well-Being Resources section :

Canada's Top Employers

Centre for Families, Work and Well-being

National Quality Institute

Managers Work-Family Tool Kit

National Study on Balancing Work, Family and Lifestyle

Work Family Tips

Work-Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium

Work Life Harmony Enterprises

VIF Links page - links to other outside related sites

From the Kitchen Table to the Boardroom Table : A Digest
* Families and work – Definitions
* Families don't all look -- or work -- the same – Of every 100 families in Canada...
* Workers are also members of families – Who makes up the Canadian Labour Force?
* Men and women in the work force – Annual Employment Patterns of Couples under 65
* Women's jobs balance the family budget – Women's Contribution to Couples' Annual Earnings
* Average Monthly Expenditures by Families – Costs vs. Disposable Income
* The Financial Aspects of Raising Children – Cost of Raising a Child to 18
* The 77-week Year – Weeks of Employment to pay for Expenditures
* Time, money or both? – Weekly Hours of Employed Work
* It's getting me down... – Perceived Time Stress

Work and Family (also includes excerpts from the Manager's Work-Family Toolkit)
[ Virtual Library ]
[ Vanier Institute of the Family ]
"The Vanier Institute of the Family, established in 1965 under the patronage of Their Excellencies Governor-General Georges P. Vanier and Madame Pauline Vanier, is a national, charitable organization dedicated to promoting the well-being of Canadian families."

B.C. Work-Life Summit 2003 - Linking Vision With Reality
November 19, 2003
"The B.C. economy has been facing enormous challenges including: increasing global competition for scarce resources, massive forest fires that have displaced families and hurt businesses, recent threats from SARS, and myriad business concerns. In this complex environment, work-life issues are of vital concern to corporate CEOs, government, industry, and labour leaders. Recognizing that “business only succeeds when people succeed,” we are addressing work-life issues from both research and practice-based perspectives. (...) Discussion of new research findings and practical applications in the business world will be the main agenda."
Program (PDF file - 186K, 8 pages)

Successful Summit Inspires BC
November 21, 2003
"BC organizations representing a cross-section of the public, private and not-for-profit sectors were WOW'd by an exceptional presentation by Dr. Linda Duxbury at the first ever, BC Work-Life Summit held at the Hyatt Regency in Vancouver on November 19, 2003. Dr. Duxbury focused on how British Columbia is doing in terms of work-life balance as compared to the Prairies, Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes."

Where to Work in Canada?
An Examination of Regional Differences in Work-Life Practices

Linda Duxbury, Chris Higgins
November 2003
Executive Summary (PDF file - 69K, 10 pages)
Cover, Table of Contents and Preface (PDF file - 344K, 10 pages)
Complete report* (PDF file - 495K, 72 pages)
[*except for the cover, table of contents and preface]

Work–Life Conflict in Canada in the New Millennium
A Status Report
Final Report

Linda Duxbury, Chris Higgins
October 2003
"As we enter the new millennium, Canadian governments, employers, employees and families face a common challenge—how to make it easier for Canadians to balance their work roles and their desire to have a meaningful life outside of work. The research initiative summarized in this report was undertaken to address this issue."
PDF version (PDF file - 1.7MB, 154 pages)

Related Link:

The 2001 National Work–Life Conflict Study: Report One
Chris Higgins, Linda Duxbury
March 2002 (Final Report)

Population and Public Health Branch (Health Canada)

New study on work-life balance released
July 2002
"A new report on work-life balance, commissioned by Health Canada, has been posted to Health Canada Online. The 2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study: Report One is the first in a series of reports on the issue of work-life balance for Canadians who are employed. Report One will examine how key work-life factors such as work hours, home chores, and responsibility for child and elder care have changed over time. The data for this study was collected from approximately 31,000 Canadians employed in medium and large-sized organizations in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors."

2001 National Work-Life Conflict Study: Report One
Dr. Chris Higgins, Professor, Richard Ivey School of Business, U.W.O.
Dr. Linda Duxbury, Professor, School of Business, Carleton University

Final Report (March 2002)
- includes the
Foreword and Executive Summary
Complete report (PDF file - 1041K, 99 pages)
Health Canada Online



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