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also (on separate Canadian Social Research Links pages):
International Women's Day, 2018
March 8 is International Women's Day a day to recognize women's achievements and acknowledge the challenges they continue to face in the quest for gender equality.
- includes links to the following:
*** This year's theme
*** Gender Equality
*** What is International Women's Day?
*** Past themes
*** Educators' toolkit
*** How to celebrate
International Women's Day 2018 campaign theme: #PressforProgress
International Women's Day is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity.
Status of Women Canada
https://www.canada.ca/en/status-women.html <=== new website URL
Status of Women Canada promotes equality for women and their full participation in the economic, social and democratic life of Canada. Status of Women Canada works to advance equality for women by focusing its efforts in three priority areas: increasing women's economic security and prosperity; encouraging women's leadership and democratic participation; and ending violence against women and girls.
NOTE : The Status of Women Canada website content is in the
process of moving from [ http://www.swc-cfc.gc.ca/index-en.html
] to the Canada.ca website [ https://www.canada.ca/en/status-women.html
] Eventually, all content now identified as swc-cfc.gc.ca/ will be switched
over to Canada.ca, so I (Gilles) won't spend an inordinate amount of time
copying and pasting the "old" URLs because they will disappear
in short order.
The existing Status of Women website will remain available until the move to Canada.ca is complete. The URL switching task has been assigned to a Departmental group called Phoenix, so things should start happening *soon*.
62nd Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status
March 12 to March 23, 2018
Preparations are underway both in Canada and abroad for the 62nd session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (UNCSW) which will take place in New York from March 12 to March 23, 2018. The deadline to submit nominations of candidates to serve as members of the official Canadian delegation at the 62nd session was January 12, 2018, at 5:00 p.m. EST.
Representatives of Member States, UN entities, and ECOSOC-accredited non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from all regions of the world will be attending the session.
UN Women is the global champion for gender equality, working to develop and uphold standards and create an environment in which every woman and girl can exercise her human rights and live up to her full potential.
Thanks to Jennefer Laidley for the links to International Women's Day below
Media & Policy News: 10 March 2017
International Womens Day March 8
StatsCan on gender pay gap: Women earn
87 cents to mens dollar:
The gap is larger than the OECD average,
and is worse for racialized and Indigenous women:
StatsCan study: Women and paid work:
Five things you can do right now to
help women achieve economic equality:
So you want to be a feminist government?
Here are three simple steps you can take:
On this Womens Day, women should
strike for someone else:
Montreal protesters call for $15 minimum
wage on International Womens Day:
Iceland becomes first country to make
equal pay mandatory:
The links on this page are organized in reverse chronological order, more or less...
Is Stephen Harper displaying fascist-like tendencies?
February 8, 2012
By Nick Fillmore
(...) A few years ago, a former U.S. business executive, Laurence W. Britt, came up with a 14-point description of fascism.
[ http://www.secularhumanism.org/library/fi/britt_23_2.htm ]
In view of Harper's behaviour of late, I think its time to look at Britts document again.
In his article, author Nick Fillmore presents a condensed version of Britt's 14 points (listed below FYI), followed by quotes from Canadian journalists and other sources concerning Harpers actions and beliefs with respect to each point.
Click the first link above to the Fillmore article for a point-by-point comparison with Harper's actions and beliefs.
Click the second link above to the Britt article for his 14-point description of fascism. Britt's article was written in 2004, two years before Harper came to power, and yet his list reads like a Stephen Harper Performance Review since he's been at the helm of the Ship of State.
Britts 14 components of fascism:
1. Powerful and continuing expressions of nationalism.
2. Disdain for the importance of human rights.
3. Identification of enemies/scapegoats as a unifying cause.
4. The supremacy of the military/avid militarism.
5. Rampant sexism.
6. A controlled mass media.
7. Obsession with national security.
8. Religion and ruling elite tied together.
9. Power of corporations protected.
10. Power of labor suppressed or eliminated.
11. Disdain and suppression of intellectuals and the arts.
12. Obsession with crime and punishment.
13. Rampant cronyism and corruption.
14. Fraudulent elections.
A Map of Maternity Leave Policies Around the World
The U.S. is one of only a handful of countries that does not require some form of paid time off for new mothers.
June 20, 2014
If you're a woman working in the United States and your employer provides paid maternity leave, consider yourself lucky: Just 11 percent of Americans employed by private industry have access to some sort of paid family leave. For state and government employees, 16 percent can take paid family leave. The U.S. federal government provides no paid family leave to its employees, though they can use their sick days or vacation days that they've saved up.
Maternity leave basics: Canada vs. the
May 16 (Updated June 18), 2014
The U.S. has one of the poorest support systems for pregnant women and new mothers in the world. The Canadian system, on the other hand, provides at least a partial ongoing income for almost a year to give families time to adjust to the new addition, as well as a guarantee of re-employment after a lengthy leave.
[U.S.] Office on Women's Health : womenshealth.gov
- Empowering women to live healthier lives!
The Office on Women's Health's (OWH) mission is to provide leadership to promote health equity for women and girls through sex/gender-specific approaches. OWH achieves its mission and vision by developing innovative programs, educating health professionals, and motivating behavior change in consumers through the dissemination of health information. OWH is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [ http://www.hhs.gov/ ]
Best and Worst Places for Women
September 18, 2011
Newsweek/The Daily Beast analyzed dozens of data points for 165 countries to determine which countries offer women the most expansive rights and the best quality of life.
10 Best Countries for Women
[Click "Next" in the top right-hand corner of the page to view all ten countries.]
1. Iceland - Overall score: 100%
2. Sweden - Overall score: 99.2 %
3. Canada - Overall score: 96.6 % ("We're Number Three, we're number three!")
4. Denmark - Overall score: 95.3 %
5. Finland - Overall score: 92.8 %
6. Switzerland - Overall score: 91.9 %
7. Norway - Overall score: 91.3 %
8. United States of America - Overall score: 89.8%
9. Australia - Overall score: 88.2%
10. Netherlands - Overall score: 87%
10 Worst Countries for Women
[Click "Next" in the top right-hand corner of the page to view all ten countries.]
156. Sudan - Overall score: 26.1%
157. Ethiopia - Overall score: 23.7%
158. Pakistan - Overall score: 21.4%
159. Niger - Overall score: 21.2%
160. Solomon Islands - Overall score: 20.8%
161. Mali - Overall score: 17.6%
162. Democratic Republic of the Congo - Overall score: 13.6%
163. Yemen - Overall score: 12.1%
164. Afghanistan - Overall score: 2%
165. Chad - Overall score: 0.0%
The Best Place to be a Woman (video, duration 3:35)
The Daily Beast
New from the
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU):
of the world's mothers: Champions for children
4 May 11
- Save the Children's twelfth annual Mothers' Index compares the well-being of mothers and children in 164 countries. Canada ranks 20th of 43 developed countries.
House marks Women's History Month with 50-year progress report
Women's History Month began Tuesday, and the White House released the
'first comprehensive federal report on the status of women' since 1963
March 1, 2011
By Daniel B. Wood
Young women in America are more likely than men to have a college degree, and womens earnings constitute a growing share of household income, but their wages still lag significantly behind those of men with comparable education, according to a report on the status of women released Tuesday by the White House. The White House released the report, which it called the first comprehensive federal report on the status of women in almost 50 years, on the first day of Womens History Month.
NOTE : This article includes links to:
* Gallery: Real-life wonder women
* Gallery: Top 10 countries where women make less than men
* Gallery: Top 10 countries where women's pay comes closest to men's pay
* Surprise! Women started more firms than men.
* Big winners right now in the job market: older white women
* Homelessness besets more women. How to respond?
Christian Science Monitor
Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being (PDF - 2MB, 97 pages)
U. S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
Executive Office of the President
Office of Management and Budget
This report provides a statistical picture of women in America in five critical areas: demographic and family changes, education, employment, health, and crime and violence. By presenting a quantitative snapshot of the well-being of American women based on Federal data, the report greatly enhances our understanding both of how far American women have come and the areas where there is still work to be done.
[Excerpt from the Foreword]
February 28, 2011
Presidential Proclamation--Women's History Month, 2011
During Women's History Month, we reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of women and honor their role in shaping the course of our Nation's history. Today, women have reached heights their mothers and grandmothers might only have imagined. Women now comprise nearly half of our workforce and the majority of students in our colleges and universities. They scale the skies as astronauts, expand our economy as entrepreneurs and business leaders, and serve our country at the highest levels of government and our Armed Forces. In honor of the pioneering women who came before us, and in recognition of those who will come after us, this month, we recommit to erasing the remaining inequities facing women in our day.
Women's History Month (U.S. Government website)
tenacious pay gap
06 December 2010
Forty-one years after the declaration of the principle of equal pay, were still not there
Australian Policy Online (APO)
APO is a news service and library specialising in Australian public policy reports and articles from academic research centres, think tanks, government and non-government organisations. The site features opinion and commentary pieces, video, audio and web resources focussed on the policy issues facing Australia.
[ About APO ]
for Single Moms
Single Mom Financial Aid, Scholarship Resources, Food and Housing Programs, Parenting Advice, and more
Created by a mother with 13 years of experience as sole-support
parent, this website is intended for American single-parent mother-led households
seeking supports, but it will also interest social researchers because it
offers glimpses of how the American welfare system works for single moms
and their families.
- includes practical information (and some links to further resources) in the areas of:
* Medicaid * Child Care Assistance * Food Stamp Tips * Housing Assistance * Help With Utility Bills * Assistance to Go to College * Dental Care * Transportation * Working From Home* Activities On A Tight Budget * Money Saving Tips * Student Loans For Single Moms * Nursing Grants and Other Financial Aid For Single Mothers *more to come...
- Go to the Links to American Non-Governmental Social Research (A-J) Links page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/us2.htm
Worlds Women 2010: Trends and Statistics
- main page
The Worlds Women 2010: Trends and Statistics is the fifth issue of The Worlds Women and is being produced to coincide with the first-ever Worlds Statistics Day, 20.10.2010. The current issue highlights the differences in the status of women and men in eight areas population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty. Analyses are based mainly on statistics from international and national statistical sources.
- main page includes links to all news releases, the report itself, earlier editions, and much more. According to the Preface: "The website displays the full range of statistics used for preparing the present publication, as well as links to numerous sources of gender statistics and references to international, regional and national compilations of relevant data."
Executive Summary (HTML)
report (PDF - 7.6MB, 284 pages)
- covers 196 countries or areas with a population of at least 100,000 as of 1 July 2010,
inequality, the decline of collective bargaining and the gender wage gap
(PDF - 773K, 54 pages)
By D. Antonczyk, B. Fitzenberger and K. Sommerfeld
Institute for the Study of Labor
This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006.
Geographical area : Germany
21 March 2010
Despite numerous improvements in womens employment outcomes, there are still many gender gaps that need to be addressed. This report provides an overview of gender differences in OECD countries. On average, across OECD countries, the proportion of women in paid work is high (62%). However, women in OECD countries earn 18% less than men, only about one-third of managerial posts are held by a woman, many more women work in part-time jobs than men (25% and 6% respectively). These gender differences are even wider with the presence of children since women are more likely to adjust their employment practices upon the arrival of a child much more than men.
Gender Brief (PDF - 2.4MB, 35 pages)
Prepared by the
OECD Social Policy Division
Australia, Europe, North America (incl. Canada), New Zealand, UK
The report provides a range of statistics grouped under three headings:
women's employment and income status,
public policies towards families.
Social Policy Division
[ Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) ]
From WomenWatch (United Nations):
Fifteen-year review of the implementation of the
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) and the
outcomes of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly (2000)
March 1-12, 2010
In March 2010, the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women will undertake a fifteen-year review of the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcomes of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly. Emphasis will be placed on the sharing of experiences and good practices, with a view to overcoming remaining obstacles and new challenges, including those related to the Millennium Development Goals. Member States, representatives of non-governmental organizations and of UN entities will participate in the session. A series of parallel events will provide additional opportunities for information exchange and networking.
Also from WomenWatch:
discussions on the Critical Areas of Concern
The Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality invites you to participate in online discussions on the Critical Areas of Concern as a contribution to the 15-year review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action at the 54th session of the Commission on the Status of Women from 1-12 March, 2010. (...) The online discussions provide a forum for individuals, groups and networks not able to attend the Commission on the Status of Women to contribute to the review.
and Platform for Action
Action for Equality, Development and Peace
WomenWatch is the central gateway to information and resources on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women throughout the United Nations system.
Alliance for International Action (FAFIA)
The Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action is a dynamic coalition of over 75 Canadian womens equality-seeking and related organizations. FAFIAs mandate is to further womens equality in Canada through domestic implementation of its international human rights commitments.
Feb 16, 2010
Olympic Games: Stark Contrast to Poverty and Violence
Open Letter to Prime Minister Harper and Premier Campbell
400,000 visitors will come to British Columbia from around the world for the 2010 Olympics. We can show them beautiful mountains, new sports venues, and a new subway line. We can show them the extraordinary talents of Canadian athletes and artists. Tragically, the splendour and expense of the Olympic Games stand in stark contrast to the poverty and violence experienced by the most marginalized women in this rich country.
On February 2, 2010, the BC CEDAW Group, with the endorsement of the Union of BC Indian Chiefs and many other organizations, filed a report with the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on these issues. [see the link below]
Union of BC Indian Chiefs
B.C. CEDAW Group
[CEDAW=United Nations Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women]
The B.C. CEDAW GROUP is a coalition of womens non-governmental and non-profit
British Columbia organizations that are committed to advancing the equality interests of
women and girls.
to report (PDF - 83K, 15 pages)
Submission of the B.C. CEDAW Group
To the United Nations Committee on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
A Report on Progress in Implementing Priority Recommendations made by
the Committee in its 2008 Concluding Observations on Canada
(...) The Government of British Columbia has failed to act on either of these central issues:
womens poverty and the lack of adequate social assistance, and
police and government failure to prevent or effectively investigate violence against Aboriginal women and girls.
The Government of British Columbia stands in violation of its obligations under Articles 2 and 3 of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
9 February 2010
Information provided by the Government of the
Canada under the follow-up procedure to the
concluding observations of the Committee (PDF - 121K, 39 pages)
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Interim Report in follow-up to the review of Canadas Sixth and Seventh Reports
On October 22, 2008, Canada appeared before the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (the Committee) for the review of its Sixth and Seventh Reports on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). In its concluding observations following the review, the Committee asked Canada to submit, within one year, information with respect to two of its recommendations (paragraphs 14 and 32).
Additional information can be found in
Canadas Sixth and Seventh Reports on CEDAW
Canadian Crossroads International (CCI) is an international development organization that is reducing poverty, mitigating the impact of HIV and AIDS and increasing womens rights around the world. Working with local partners in 28 projects, in eight countries and supported by hundreds of volunteers each year, Crossroads leverages expertise and resources, North and South, required to help people overcome poverty and assert their human rights.
[ See also : Fighting Poverty through local economic development ]
central to efforts to deal with climate change, says new UNFPA report
(Word file - 69K, 2 pages)
18 November 2009
LONDON -Women bear the disproportionate burden of climate change, but have so far been largely overlooked in the debate about how to address problems of rising seas, droughts, melting glaciers and extreme weather, concludes The State of World Population 2009, released today by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
Media Outreach Kit
- includes links to reports, news releases, videos, charts and contacts for media enquiries
of World Population 2009
Facing a Changing World:
Women, Population and Climate (PDF - 4.3MB, 104 pages)
As greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere, droughts, severe storms and rising seas threaten to take an especially heavy toll on women, who make up a large share of the worlds poor.
Young People and Climate Change (PDF - 2.5MB, 56 pages)
Youth supplement to State of World Population report
Nations human-rights panel wants action on women
Canada must soon report to the UN on poverty and violence
against women, but advocate Shelagh Day argues that the report will have nothing to say.
November 26, 2009
By Carlito Pablo
Canada appears to be dragging its heels in responding to a demand from a United Nations human-rights panel. It probably wont be until December 2014 that the country will file its next report regarding its compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, an international treaty ratified in 1981. However, when the CEDAW committee met in Geneva in 2008, the panel was so concerned about poverty and violence here that it asked Canada to report within one yearand not wait until its next scheduled report in 2014about how it is dealing with these issues. The UN panel made the request when it released its observations on Canadas treaty compliance on November 7, 2008. According to womens-rights advocate Shelagh Day, the report is due by the end of November. But the codirector of the Poverty and Human Rights Centre and member of the B.C. CEDAW monitoring group says she doubts that Canada has much to say.
on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
& Human Rights Centre
The Poverty and Human Rights Centre is committed to eradicating poverty and promoting social and economic equality through human rights.
Role of International Social and Economic
Rights in the Interpretation of Domestic Law in Canada
February 1, 2008
This Law Sheet, produced by the Poverty and Human Rights Centre, is concerned with the role that international human rights law can play in the interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and other laws in Canada. It is intended to assist lawyers in their advocacy work before courts and tribunals. It is also intended to assist non-governmental organizations who rely on the human rights framework in their work to assist members of vulnerable groups. It is specifically focused on the domestic enforcement of social and economic rights.
The Factum Library section contains factums, pleadings and other litigation documents from selected Canadian Charter of Rights and statuatory human rights cases. The materials are organized by case name, parties, and document date.
Feminist Alliance for International Action
The Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action (FAFIA) is a dynamic coalition of over 75 Canadian womens equality-seeking and related organizations. FAFIAs mandate is to further womens equality in Canada through domestic implementation of its international human rights commitments.
Report Card 2009 (PDF - 112K, 8 pages)
First annual CEDAW report card released: Province gets a D in womens equality
British Columbia fares badly in the first annual West Coast Legal Education and Action Fund CEDAW Report Card.
October 6, 2009
The Report Card grades the BC government on how well it has adhered to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Report Card monitors BCs compliance between CEDAWs 4-year reporting periods, in order to hold the government accountable both to UN standards and BC women. Measurements include a number of important legal and policy areas that fall within provincial jurisdiction, such as access to justice and violence against women.
West Coast Legal Education and Action Fund
The West Coast Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF) formed when the equality guarantees of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms came into force. Our mission is to achieve equality by changing historic patterns of systemic discrimination against women through BC-based equality rights litigation, law reform and public legal education.
and Civil Society News
18 September 2009
On the 14th of September the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution to establish a new single entity for women's rights defense. The agencies and offices relative to gender issues will be merged into one. The organization WEDO (Women's Environment and Development Organization), member of the GEAR campaign (Gender Equality Architecture Reform Campaign), has been one of its main developers.
30 July 2009
UNIFEM has released the report Progress of the World's Women 2008/2009, which recognizes that gender issues and the achievement of the MDGs cannot be separated from a strong recognition of women's problematic and the defense of their rights.
is the women's fund of the United Nations
It provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programmes and strategies to foster women's empowerment and gender equality. Placing the advancement of women's human rights at the centre of all of its efforts, UNIFEM focuses its activities on four strategic areas:
* Reducing feminized poverty.
* Ending violence against women.
* Reversing the spread of HIV /AIDS among women and girls.
* Achieving gender equality in democratic governance in times of peace as well as war.
Opportunities in Technology (U.S.)
- incl. links to:
* Women's Role in American History * Understanding Women's Rights * Business Opportunities for Women in E-commerce * Women in ICT Policy * ICT and Women Empowerment in Cambodia * Women of the Modern Times * ICT to Promote Equality * Information on the Evolvement of a Corporate Woman * Resource Page on Women and Politics * Gender, Justice and ICTs
Meeting Tomorrow (Nationwide Audio Visual)
Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women in Canada
December 6 is the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women in Canada. Established in 1991 by the Parliament of Canada, this day marks the anniversary of the murders in 1989 of 14 young women at l'École Polytechnique de Montréal. They died because they were women.
Status of Women Canada
Steinem on Sarah Palin
Palin: wrong woman, wrong message
By Gloria Steinem
September 4, 2008
"Here's the good news: Women have become so politically powerful that even the anti-feminist right wing -- the folks with a headlock on the Republican Party -- are trying to appease the gender gap with a first-ever female vice president. (...) But here is even better news: It won't work. This isn't the first time a boss has picked an unqualified woman just because she agrees with him and opposes everything most other women want and need. Feminism has never been about getting a job for one woman. It's about making life more fair for women everywhere. (...) Sarah Palin shares nothing but a chromosome with Hillary Clinton.
She is Phyllis Schlafly, only younger."
Los Angeles Times
You won't find many online resources relating to the 2008 U.S. presidential election on the Canadian Social Research Links website.
[ Not that I consider it irrelevant, but I have to budget my time, and I get to make the decisions here. Here are some resources for U.S. election junkies (it's a Google search results page).]
But I just had to share this article with you --- Gloria Steinem nails it. When I think of Schlafly/Palin in the White House, why does the theme song from Leave it to Beaver pop into my head???
Days of Activism against Gender Violence
Demanding Implementation, Challenging Obstacles: End Violence Against Women
November 19, 2007
The 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence (25 November - 10 December) is an international campaign originating from the first Women's Global Leadership Institute sponsored by the Center for Women's Global Leadership in 1991.
Nobel Women's Initiative
The Nobel Women's Initiative was established in 2006 by six sister Nobel Peace Laureates "to bring together our extraordinary experiences in a united effort for peace with justice and equality."
Abortion Policies 2007
"... provides the most up-to-date, accurate and objective information available on the legal status of induced abortion for the 195 Member and non-Member States of the United Nations. To complement this information, data on abortion rates, contraceptive prevalence, total fertility and maternal mortality are also provided."
Chart (PDF file - 312K, 2 pages)
Table (Excel file - 143K, 3 sheets)
[ part of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ]
National Foundation for Australian Women
Under the WorkChoices industrial relations system, women's pay compared with men has deteroriated since WorkChoices was introduced, regardless of their occupation or education status, and includes professional and managerial women as well as those in lower paid, less skilled work.
APO Weekly Briefing
[ Australian Policy Online (APO) ]
Health Organization: The Department of Gender, Women and Health
The World Health Organizations Department of Gender, Women and Health (GWH) brings attention to the ways in which biological and social differences between women and men affect health and the steps needed to achieve health equity. On their homepage, visitors can look at the right-hand side to get quick information about upcoming events sponsored by the GWH, read their monthly update, and also click on a link that will take them to the latest publications from the GWH team. On the left-hand side of the page, visitors can learn more about some of their specific areas of interest, including work on gender-based violence, gender and HIV/AIDS, and gender mainstreaming. Additionally, the Gender and other health topics area includes information sheets on gender and blindness, gender and mental health, as well as many other topics.
The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2007
What's New from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development :
work on gender
A new one-stop shop for OECD work on gender
The new OECD website on gender presents recent and ongoing projects aimed at improving gender policy across a wide variety of areas in OECD countries and beyond. It also features "Women and Men in OECD Countries", a brochure presenting interesting facts and figures on gender issues.
"We're Number 14! We're Number 14!"
GLOBAL GENDER GAP REPORT 2006
(Posted Feb. 9/07)
Report from the World Economic Forum measures inequality between men and women in four critical areas economic participation, educational attainment, political empowerment, and health and survival. Canada ranks 14th, lagging behind most European nations.
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU) - University of Toronto
What's New from the World Bank:
Women, Boosting Economies
New plan says gender equality in the workforce makes economic sense.
Press Release (September 16/06)
At the Annual Meetings in Singapore World Bank Group President, Paul Wolfowitz announced a four-year, US$ 24.5 million plan to enhance womens economic power in key economic sectors in the developing world. Earlier statements by Mr. Wolfowitz that womens economic empowerment is smart economics and a sure path to development, spurred the Bank to take the lead in a plan to invest in womens economic activity in the Banks client countries.
Story (October 4)
Gender Action Plan (PDF file - 365K, 29 pages) - September 2006
16th International AIDS Conference
August 14-18, Toronto
- incl. links to : Home - Conference Overview - Conference Programme - Abstracts - Scholarships - Satellites, Exhibitions and Affiliated Events - Registration - Hotel Accommodation - Travelling to Canada - Organization - Sponsors - Volunteers - Governance - Virtual Media Centre - Site Map
Related Links - from Barbara Anello at DisAbled Women's Network Ontario:
Women and HIV/AIDS - the International AIDS conference from women's perspective
Roundup from the 16th International AIDS Conference:
Delegates at the closing of the XVI International AIDS conference in Toronto were reminded that now is the "Time to Deliver."
The XVI International AIDS Conference began today by addressing the need for a coordinated and comprehensive approach to HIV that includes elements some say are often overlooked, like human rights and youth.
On Wednesday, achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS was a major focus of the conference. The World Health Organization released new estimates of global antiretroviral therapy coverage.
The latest Daily Roundup includes comments from actor Richard Gere and former U.S. President Bill Clinton.
The Daily Roundup for Monday, August 14 looks at the AIDS 2006 theme Time To Deliver and features comments from Bill and Melinda Gates and former U.S. President Bill Clinton.
From Amnesty International:
International Report 2006 ($)
- incl. links to: Regional Overview [including Canada, see the link below] Asia-Pacific Europe and Central Asia Middle East and North Africa) - Key Issues (Arms Control, International Justice, Displaced People, Stop Violence Against Women [see the link below], Death Penalty) - Secretary General's Message - The Search for Human Security - What does AI do?
violence against women:
WOMENS RIGHT TO FREEDOM FROM VIOLENCE
Some 3,000 representatives from governments and womens and human rights organizations came together in New York in March 2005 to mark the 10th anniversary of the Beijing UN World Conference on Women and to assess progress towards fulfilling the Beijing Declaration and Program for Action. While governments unanimously reaffirmed the commitments they had made a decade ago, they failed to make further pledges to promote and protect womens human rights. This failure was in part the result of a retrogressive attack on womens human rights that has become evident over the past few years. This attack, especially regarding womens sexual rights and reproductive rights, was led by conservative US-backed Christian groups and supported by the Holy See and some member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. The attacks on womens rights, the changed global security context and the lack of will by states to implement international human rights standards formed the backdrop against which AI continued throughout 2005 to join with womens groups around the world to promote womens human rights.
Overview : Canada
"Indigenous women and girls continued to suffer a high level of discrimination and violence. There were concerns that counter-terrorism practices did not conform to human rights obligations. More..."
All Amnesty International Documents on Canada - links to 55 reports
It's In Our Hands: Stop Violence Against Women
Amnesty International Report 2006
July 10, 2006
From birth to death, in times of peace as well as war, women face discrimination and violence at the hands of the state, the community and the family. Female infanticide deprives countless women of life itself. Every year, millions of women are raped by partners, relatives, friends and strangers, by employers and colleagues, security officials and soldiers. Women, children and men suffer from violence inflicted in the home, but the overwhelming majority of victims are women and girls. During armed conflicts, violence against women is often used as a weapon of war, in order to dehumanize the women themselves, or to persecute the community to which they belong.
DAWN-Ontario (DisAbled Women's Network-Ontario)
From The Scout Report, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (U.S.):
finds that full-time stay-at-homes would make over $130,000
May 3, 2006
NEW YORK - A full-time stay-at-home mother would earn $134,121 a year if paid for all her work, an amount similar to a top U.S. ad executive, a marketing director or a judge, according to a study released on Wednesday.
What is Mom's Job Worth?
Digital History: Mothers and Fathers in
America: Looking Backward, Looking Forward
Over the past hundred years, a number of economic and social transformations have resulted in dramatic changes to the American family structure. While debates about this complex topic rages on, one thing is certain: Stay-at-home moms do a great deal of work, and the work encompasses everything from managing household finances to counseling children (and sometimes even their own spouse). This week, the staff at Waltham-based Salary.com released an intriguing study that shows that a full-time stay-at-home mother would earn $134,121 a year if she were paid for all the diverse tasks she performs. This amount is similar to the annual wage earned by an ad executive or judge. In order to tabulate these predicted earnings, the survey administrators calculated the earning power of the jobs that 'most closely comprise a mother's role?. Of course, this included such professions as janitor, van driver, psychologists, day-care teacher, as well as several others. Some of the prevailing sentiment among mothers upon hearing about the study can be summed up best by the forthright remarks made by Dr. Laura Riley, a mother of two: "There is no price tag-I'm priceless."
NOTE : Some of the links in this Scout Report
feature were dead, so I removed them.
That's why the text below doesn't jive with the links above.
The first link [above] leads to coverage of this story from MSNBC.com, complete with a video commentary by newscaster, Lisa Daniels. The second link will take users to a piece from this Wednesday's Boston Herald that offers additional insight into the study. The third link takes users to the special page on the wages of stay-at-homes created by Salary.com. The fourth link whisks users away to a very interesting commentary by Marci Laehr (a working mom) on the debates about whether or not to stay-at home full-time after the birth of a child. Visitors can also chime in with their own opinions here, if they so desire. The fifth link leads to a fine essay offered by Professor Steven Mintz of the University of Utah on the changing roles of mothers and fathers in America over the past few hundred years. The final link, appropriately enough, leads to a bit of an electronic refuge for working moms. Here users will find tips for single moms seeking to maintain some balance between their careers and their family life.
six links and the review above are from The Scout
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2006. http://scout.wisc.edu/
Related Link - I thought I'd throw this one in for all the Moms out there, just in time for Mother's Day coming up...
"Are you wondering what mom should be paid for her work as mom? Salary.com has now valuated the "mom job" of both the Working and Stay at Home Mom! We consulted Stay at Home and Working Moms to determine the top 10 jobs that make up a mom's job description. If paid, Stay at Home Moms would earn $134,121 annually (up from 2005's salary of $131,471). Working Moms would earn $85,876 annually for the "mom job" portion of their work, in addition to their actual "work job" salary."
WAS TWENTY YEARS AGO TODAY...MARCH 8, 1986
by Martha Friendly
Childcare Resource and Research Unit
International Womens Day 2006 is the twentieth anniversary of the Report of the federal governments first and only Task Force on Child Care. The key recommendation of the "Katie Cooke Task Force" was a universal system of child care co-funded by federal and provincial governments. It would have affordable parent fees, would be designed and managed by the provinces under national standards and would be built through a gradual increase in the supply of regulated child care until the year 2001 when it would serve all children and families. The cost at that time, the Task Force calculated, would be $11.3 billion.
Related content from CRRU on child care ===> Go to the Non-Governmental Early Learning and Child Care Links page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ecd2.htm
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU)
(University of Toronto)
Web Search Results:
"International Womens Day"
Google News search Results:
"International Womens Day"
Gender Wage Gap in Four Countries (PDF file - 259K, 22 pages)
[Australia, France, Japan and Britain]
Anne Daly et al
Discussion Paper No. 1921
In a series of studies written during the 1980s Bob Gregory and his co-authors compared the gender wage gap in Australia with that found in other countries. They found it was not the difference in human capital endowments that explained different gender wage gaps but rather the rewards for these endowments. They concluded that country-specific factors, especially the institutional environment, were important in explaining the gender wage gap. This study updates Gregorys work by comparing the gender wage gap across four countries, Australia, France, Japan and Britain. Our results concord with those of Gregory: institutions are still important in explaining the relative size of the gender wage gap.
Institute for the Study of Labor
[*WomenWatch offers United Nations Information and Resources on Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women]
Session of the Commission on the Status of Women
Beijing +10 (United Nations, New York, 28 February to 11 March 2005)
- meeting of high level representatives from 100+ UN Member States and thousands of NGO representatives to review progress made since the Fourth World Congress on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The Ten-Year Review and Appraisal are part of the 49th session of the Commission on the Status of Women.
Official Documents for the Commission on the Status of Women 49th Session
and Appraisal of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
and the Outcome Document of the Twenty-third Special Session of the General Assembly
Decade of Going Backwards: Canada in the Post-Beijing Era
Beijing+10 UN shadow report
February 25, 2005
"This shadow report provides a comprehensive analysis of Canadas progress on the commitments it made to womens equality ten years ago in Beijing.
Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action (FAFIA)
- incl. "information on Canadas commitment under the Beijing Platform for Action or the upcoming Beijing meetings in New York (and) links to both the official reports and activities of Canada and the UN, as well as relevant information from womens organizations around the world."
- incl. links to resources in the following areas: Beijing +10 - Canada Social Transfer - Women, Trade and Economic Justice - Violence, Poverty and Housing - Human Rights in Canada - CEDAW - Gender Budgeting - Pay Equity
Also from FAFIA:
Beijing+10 Research and Resources
and Beyond "The Women of the World are Watching"
"The Global Week of Action: Beijing and Beyond is an opportunity for everyone to get involved, apply pressure on their governments, demand women's human rights, and celebrate achievements."
I didn't find many links to meaningful web content on this theme, but the Google News search turned up some interesting articles:
Google News search
Results : "International
Google Web Search Results : "International Women's Week"
the Third Way: Single Mothers and Welfare Reform
during the Clinton,Chrétien, and Blair Years (PDF file - 134K, 11 pages)
Dept. of Political Science, University of Toronto
(The PDF file is dated November 2002)
McGill Institute for the Study of Canada
Majority Foundation Online
"The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF), which was founded in 1987, is a cutting edge organization dedicated to women's equality, reproductive health, and non-violence. In all spheres, FMF utilizes research and action to empower women economically, socially, and politically. Our organization believes that feminists - both women and men, girls and boys - are the majority, but this majority must be empowered."
Violence and Music Therapy
"Examines the power of using popular music, something people already listen to, as a way for people to express their feelings. Includes examples of therapeutic messages in popular music as well as original music by Freudian Slip, therapeutic rock band."
Music Therapy, and Using Music in Therapy
The Power of Music as a Coping Skill
Indifference to the safety of Indigenous women must end
October 4, 2004
"Canadian officials have too long ignored the threat to Indigenous women in Canadian towns and cities. Many are missing, some have been murdered and Canadian authorities are not doing enough to stop the violence, says Amnesty International in a report, Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada, released today."
finds tightening child care crunch for low-income families - U.S.
September 14, 2004
"WASHINGTON States are charging low-income parents more for child care, putting more kids on waiting lists and paying providers less, tightening a national child care crunch, a study released Tuesday concludes. The study, by the National Women's Law Center, blames tight state budgets and stagnant federal funding. The group and many independent experts say child care is essential for poor and low-income parents, particularly single mothers, to find and keep work."
San Diego Union-Tribune
Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (U.S.
"The EEOC enforces Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion or national origin); the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, which protects workers age 40 and older from discrimination based on age; the Equal Pay Act of 1963; the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits employment discrimination against people with disabilities in the federal sector; Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act, which prohibits employment discrimination against people with disabilities in the private sector and in state and local governments; and sections of the Civil Rights Act of 1991."
to Stop Violence Against Women:
An Open Letter To The Womens Movement from Amnesty International
"We are pleased to launch a global campaign to stop violence against women. We are excited to be joining your long standing efforts to stop violence against women. The womens movement has long been a powerful force against the tide of violence. Amnesty International, too, has added its voice to the struggle to protect and promote womens rights. Now we want to concentrate more attention and resources on this issue because we know that violence against women is everyones problem. Amnesty members and staff offer our voices to the struggle for a world free of violence against women."
Amnesty International Canada
equality: slow progress in closing gender
gap hampering EU competitiveness (PDF file - 80K, 2 pages)
[ version française ]
Brussels, 20 February 2004
"The persistent lack of equality between men and women in the EU could impact on its Lisbon goals, according to a new report. Progress has been made in the EU on narrowing the gender gap, but remains slow. The European Commission report will be reviewed by EU heads of state and government at the next European Spring Council on March 25 and 26. It shows that significant gender gaps remain, especially in the labour market. Failure to address this could hamper the EU's attempt to reach the targets set at the Lisbon Council in 2000, such as reaching a 60% employment rate for women in the EU by 2010."
on equality between women and men , 2004: Report from the Commission to the Council,
The European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions (PDF file - 238K, 20 pages)
February 19, 2004
Employment and Social Affairs
[ European Commission ]
[ Europa ]
CEDAW Call to Action - PovNet's CEDAW page (British
Posted May 7, 2003
"The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) issued its Concluding Comments on Canada in April, 2003. It singled out B.C. for criticism because of the negative impact on women of cuts to welfare and legal aid, among other things.
Shelagh Day, who represented the B.C. CEDAW Group at the review of Canada's report, says, "The Committee states that it is concerned about the disproportionately negative impact on women and girls of a number of recent changes in British Columbia, including the cuts in funds for legal aid and welfare assistance; narrowed eligibility rules for welfare; the incorporation of the Ministry of Women's Equality under the Ministry of Community, Aboriginal and Women's Services; the abolition of the independent Human Rights Commission; the closing of a number of courthouses; the cut in support programmes for victims of domestic violence and the proposed changes regarding the prosecution of domestic violence.
BC CEDAW group has issued a call to action, asking people to write to the Premier as well as their MLA, to spur the BC Government into changing some of its discriminatory policies."
Source : PovNet
Review of Canada's 5th Report
February 06, 2003
"Canadian women's organizations set the agenda for the review by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women of Canada's 5th report. The national report, prepared by the Feminist Alliance for International Action, and the B.C. report (pdf and doc), prepared by the B.C. CEDAW Group, provided Committee members with a detailed picture of the situation of women in Canada." More...
Columbia Moves Backwards on Womens Equality
Submission of the B.C. CEDAW Group to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women on the occasion of the Committees review of Canadas 5 th Report
January 23, 2003
Feminist Alliance for International Action
"FAFIA is an alliance of over 40 Canadian women's equality-seeking non-governmental organizations formed in February 1999 at a national consultation of women's organizations held in Ottawa."
- incl. links to documents, events, news, research, resources, and more
Nations WomenWatch site - "The UN Internet Gateway on the Advancement
and Empowerment of Women"
Provisional Agenda / Official Documents / Statements / Concluding Comments / Press Releases
United Nations Development Fund for Women
International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW)
and Social Movements in the United States, 1775 to 2000
"Organized around a collection of over 900 primary documents, the Women and Social Movements website offers new ways for students, teachers, and scholars to study American History."
- incl. links to Documents - Teacher's Corner (e.g., lesson ideas, projects, links to relevant websites and other resources) - Links (Archives and Webographies in Women's History - Projects in Women's History - Contemporary Women and Social Movements - Teaching Links)
Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender
[State University of New York at Binghamton]
Watch on Poverty Eradication and Gender Equity
"Social Watch is an NGO watchdog system aimed at monitoring the commitments made by governments at the Copenhagen Social Summit and the Beijing World Conference on Women. Social Watch is a meeting point for citizen and civil organizations who care about social development and gender discrimination. It is about monitoring development policies that directly impact, positively or negatively, the situation of women and people living in poverty. And it is about influencing the outcome of policy decisions."
Peach Pages : World-Wide List of Abuse Agencies
- List of abuse agencies, with lists for 180 countries, and EarthWords: abuse information in 53 languages
Links - Women and Gender Studies Web Sites (U.S.)
Developed and maintained by the Women's Studies Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries
The purpose of WSS Links is to provide access to a wide range of resources in support of Women's Studies.
- incl. links organized under the following headings: General sites - Archives - Art - Business - Culture (mostly literature) - Education - Film - Health - History - International - Lesbian Sites - Music - Philosophy - Politics - Science and Technology - Theology
Women's History: A Research Guide
Sections include : General Reference & Biographical Sources - Subject Index to Research Sources - State and Regional History Sources - Finding Books | Journal Articles | Theses - Finding Primary Sources: Tools/Formats
Source : Ken Middleton (Reference / Microforms Librarian, Middle Tennessee State University)
Institute for Women's
Policy Research (IWPR) - U.S.
The Institute for Women's Policy Research is a public policy research organization dedicated to informing and stimulating the debate on public policy issues of critical importance to women and their families. IWPR focuses on issues of poverty and welfare, employment and earnings, work and family issues, the economic and social aspects of health care and domestic violence, and women's civic and political participation.
Women’s Tribune Centre - Connecting Women Globally for Social Change
The International Women’s Tribune Centre (IWTC) is dedicated to achieving women’s full participation in shaping a development process that is just, peaceful and sustainable. IWTC is an international, activist organization rooted in the first global non-governmental women’s meeting held in 1975 in Mexico City.
Six years after Beijing: How are women doing today?
Statistics and indicators of women's lives around the world by country and region
links to international women's websites
WomenAction is a global information, communication and media network that enables NGOs to actively engage in the Beijing+5 review process with the long term goal of women's empowerment, with a special focus on women and media.
WhrNET - Women's Human Rights Net
WOMEN, INK. - A service of IWTC that markets and disseminates women and development materials from more than 100 small presses in both the Global North and Global South. Currently, the 2000 edition of Women, Ink.’s catalogue contains approximately 300 titles.
Feminist Alliance for International Action
FAFIA is an alliance of over 40 Canadian women's equality-seeking non-governmental organizations formed in February 1999 at a national consultation of women's organizations held in Ottawa.
Towards Women's Equality : Canada's Failed Commitment
Prepared for FAFIA by Shelagh Day for the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly June 2000 to review progress in implementing the Beijing Platform For Action
From Beijing to Beijing+5 (FAFIA Newsletter, Fall 2000)
Human Rights Resources
Bora Laskin Law Library
incl. links to hundreds of articles, documents and websites organized under two dozen headings, from the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women to Violence Against Women
Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women:
Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey (U.S.)
This research report presents findings on the prevalence and incidence of rape, physical assault, and stalking; the rate of injury among rape and physical assault victims; and injured victims' use of medical devices.
Full text of the report:
PDF File (290K, 71 pages)
Text File - (68 pages, 160K) - does not include figures, charts, forms, and tables
Source : National Institute of Justice
Related links - see the Office of Justice Programs
National Women's Law Center - Expanding the Possibilities
"...to protect and advance the progress of women and girls at work, in school, and in virtually every aspect of their lives"
Covers the following specific women's issues : Athletics - Child Care - Child and Family Support - Education - Employment - Health - Sexual Harassment - Women in the Military.
Women's Environment &
WEDO is an international advocacy network actively working to transform society to achieve a healthy and peaceful planet, with social, political, economic and environmental justice for all through the empowerment of women, in all their diversity, and their equal participation with men in decision-making from grassroots to global arenas.
World March of Women - This Montreal-based website (also available in French and Spanish) is very comprehensive.
National Women's Health
Information Center (U.S.)
The National Women's Health Information Center is a service of the Office on Women’s Health in the Department of Health and Human Services. The NWHIC provides a gateway to the vast array of Federal and other women’s health information resources. Includes links to a wide variety of women’s health-related material developed by the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Defense, other Federal agencies, and private sector resources.
Women Online Worldwide
Development : Enhancing Development Through Attention to Gender
The World Bank
Development Research Group/ Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network
Beginning with the oft-supported premise that "income growth and economic development promote gender equality in the long run," the report argues for a three-part global strategy for promoting gender equality: 1. a reform of economic and judicial institutions, 2. the implementation of policies that promote sustained economic growth and development, and 3. the promotion of active measures to give women a greater command of resources and a stronger political voice. Of course, the devil is in the details, and those who wish to confront him may examine the policy report's specific arguments and recommendations in .pdf format linked to from the table of contents page given above.
Reviewed by The Scout Report for Social Sciences
- The Gender Website of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Mothers' Day, May 14th 2000
"MILLION MOM MARCH MOTHERS' DAY 2000 is dedicated to the mission of educating our children and our country about the life-threatening danger of guns.
Women's Networking Support Programme and Beijing +5
The APC Women's Networking Support Programme is currently co-coordinator of the WomenAction 2000 initiative. The WomenAction network is implementing strategies for a global electronic information and communication campaign that will enable non-governmental organizations to actively participate in the review of the Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA). The five-year review of the BPFA will be the main focus of a Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be held in June 5-9, 2000 at UN Headquarters in New York.
US Women Connect- "Linking U.S.Women and Girls to the Global Women's Movement"
8 March 2000
Centers for Women - (Massachusetts)
"The Wellesley Centers for Women (WCW) unites the Center for Research on Women and the Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies in an interdisciplinary community of scholars engaged in research, training, analysis and action.
Source : Wellesley College
University of Wisconsin Center for Women's Health and Women's Health Research
"Along with 12 other centers designated by the US Public Health Service Office on Women's Health, the Center for Women's Health and Women's Health Research is designed to provide a "one-stop shopping" model for the delivery of clinical health care services to women and a multi-disciplinary research agenda on women's health issues. Located on the site are several resources that will be of interest to visitors, including a Web site hosted by the center that is specifically designed for adolescent girls and women who have been diagnosed with scoliosis, as well as the online Wisconsin Women's Health Information Resource Directory. Visitors will also want to examine the Center's newsletter, their online calendar of events, and a news archive of reports dealing with women's health issues from a number of media sources, such as CNN, the BBC, and the New York Times."
Reviewed by The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2002.
The Rural Womyn Zone is an expanding network of women living in rural areas across the United States and Canada.
International Human Rights Database (Women's Human Rights Site)
Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA)
Feminist Majority Foundation
Global Fund for Women (GFW) - "The Global Fund for Women is a grantmaking foundation supporting women's human rights organizations around the world working to address critical issues such as gaining economic independence, increasing girls' access to education and stopping violence against women."
Inter-American Dialogue, the Women’s Leadership Conference of the Americas
International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF)
Labor Council for Latin American Advancement (LCLAA)
National Foundation for Women Legislators (NFWL)
National Organization of Women (NOW)
North-South Institute of Canada
Women Leaders Online (WLO)
for Women (U.S)
The Global Fund for Women is a California-based grantmaking foundation that supports the efforts of women's organizations to transform their societies and the world. These organizations are working to create a just and democratic world, where women and men can participate equally in all aspects of social, political, and economic life.
Heartless Bitches International
The National Organization for Women ( NOW ) Home Page
- NOW and Welfare
WWWomen! The Premier Search Directory for Women Online!
Solidarity - "...a revolutionary, socialist, democratic, feminist, anti-racist organization"
Women and Sustainable Development- Canadian Perspectives
Women's Books Online
Women's Studies at Purdue University
iVillage.com - The Women's Network
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