Canadian Social Research Links

American Government
Social Research Links

Sites de recherche sociale au Canada

Sites gouvernementaux de
recherche sociale aux États-Unis

Updated July 6, 2017
Page révisée le 6 juillet 2017

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* The White House
* State of the Union Address (January 20, 2015)
* The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2016 Budget + analysis
* The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2015 Budget + analysis
* The U.S. Health Care Reform Initiative
* The 2012 Statistical Abstract (updated to June 2013)
* 2015 Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines
* Welfare in America - Reports to Congress (updated to June 2013)
- incl. TANF Annual Report and Indicators of Welfare Dependence
* Food Insecurity in Households With Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11 (updated May 2013)
* The poverty issue in the U.S. 2008 presidential election
* 2014 Green Book <=== NOTE : this is the definitive authority on U.S. social security programs.

* Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the US : 2014 (September 16, 2015)

* CIA: The World Factbook

[ HHS = Health and Human Services ]
[ TANF = Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program]


Related Canadian Social Research Links pages:

American Non-Government Social Research Links (A-J)
American Non-Government Social Research Links (M-Z)
U.S. Social Security Reform
Children and Families - International
Social Research Statistics
U.S. and other international poverty measures


Welfare reform - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Movements in many countries around the world push for welfare reform. Sizeable and powerful reform movements exist in the United States of America, Canada, Great Britain, and France among many others.
- incl. the following : * United States * The Welfare System and reform in Great Britain * The Welfare System and reform in France * References * External links

What are good sources of information on basic trends in poverty, welfare, and related issues in America?

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)

[University of Wisconsin-Madison ]


NOTE: For a large collection of links related to poverty measurement in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page of this site:


American Social Safety Net 101:

Click the link below if you don't understand how welfare works in the U.S.

TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) and the Broader Safety Net (PDF - 907K, 11 pages)
January 2012

Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE) -
[ ]
[ OPRE is part of the Administration for Children & Families (ACF) - ]
[ ACF is part of Health and Human Services -


From the
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP):

Online Services for Key Low-Income Benefit Programs:
What States Provide Online with Respect to SNAP, TANF, Child Care Assistance, Medicaid, CHIP, and General Assistance
Updated March 31, 2015
HTML version:
PDF version
(828 K, 43 pages ):

- includes hundreds of links to information in all U.S. states about the five main state-administered low-income benefit programs:
* SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly known as Food Stamps)
* TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families)
* Medicaid
(Means-tested health program for certain people and families with low incomes and resources)
(Children’s Health Insurance Program)
* Child Care Assistance

The state-by-state links in this directory will be particularly useful to those researching basic information about each state’s programs or variations across states with respect to policies or applications. There are several caveats to consider when using these resources, however (see p. 7 ("Online Links") for those caveats.

NOTE : In addition to information provided for the five main state-administered low-income benefit programs listed in the previous paragraph, this directory includes links to the 30 states that have General Assistance (GA) programs for individuals not qualifying for any other public assistance.

Recommended resource!!
This collection of links offers direct access to information (FOR EACH STATE] about the five programs mentioned above (+ General Assistance) under the following headings:
* Online applications * Online policy manuals * Printable applications * Eligibility Screener/Calculator and Online Applications * Check application status * Renew benefits * Update information/report changes * View account information * Program data

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP)


Poverty Dispatch - U.S.
- links to news items from the American press about poverty, welfare reform, child welfare, education, health, hunger, Medicare and Medicaid, etc.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)
[ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]

Quotes from the The American Taliban
- memorable quotes from Ann Coulter, Jerry Falwell, Laura Schlessinger and other American Conservative quotables.

The Simplest Explanation Of Obamacare. Ever. (video, duration 6:53)


May 23, 2017

Trump Budget Gets Three-Fifths of Its Cuts From Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income People
Slashes These Programs by Unprecedented $2.5 Trillion
May 30, 2017
By Isaac Shapiro et al

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities


US Budget FY 2018
A New Foundation for American Greatness - President's Budget
- budget home page, includes links to main budget documents

Fiscal Year 2018
Congressional Budget Submission
(PDF - 1950MB, 160 pages)
Executive Office of the President

May 23, 2017
Press Briefing on the FY2018 Budget


How the US Federal Budget Process is Supposed to Work:
October 08, 2016
The annual federal budget process begins in February and is supposed to be wrapped up by October 1.


Related links:

America First : A Budget Blueprint to Make
America Great Again
(PDF - 1.6MB, 64 pages)

Report : The 2017 Long-Term Budget Outlook
March 30, 2017
If current laws remained generally unchanged, the United States would face steadily increasing federal budget deficits and debt ov

Congressional Budget Office :
Since 1975, CBO has produced independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process. Each year, the agency’s economists and budget analysts produce dozens of reports and hundreds of cost estimates for proposed legislation. CBO is strictly nonpartisan; conducts objective, impartial analysis; and hires its employees solely on the basis of professional competence without regard to political affiliation

Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) :
The Joint Committee on Taxation is a nonpartisan committee of the United States Congress, originally established under the Revenue Act of 1926. The Joint Committee operates with an experienced professional staff of Ph.D economists, attorneys, and accountants, who assist Members of the majority and minority parties in both houses of Congress on tax legislation.

Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) serves the President of the United States in overseeing the implementation of his vision across the Executive

er the next 30 years—reaching the highest level of debt relative to GDP ever experienced in this country.Branch.

What Trump cut in his agency budgets
By Kim Soffen and Denise Lu
Updated May 23, 2017
On May 23, the Trump administration released his full 2018 budget proposal, which details many of the changes the president wants to make to the federal government’s spending.

Trump federal budget 2018: Massive cuts to the arts, science and the poor


H.R. 1628, American Health Care Act of 2017
CBO and JCT estimate that enacting the American Health Care Act would reduce federal deficits by $119 billion over the coming decade and increase the number of people who are uninsured by 23 million in 2026 relative to current law.

U.S. Health Insurance Coverage:
Poor, chronically sick, unemployed most likely to lose coverage if ACA repealed, study finds
By Gillian Mohney and Dr. Darien Sutton-Ramsey
January 20, 2017
With Republican lawmakers promising to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act under the new administration, researchers have been working to understand how people who gained coverage after the ACA’s passage will be affected. Those most at risk for losing coverage are more likely to be poor, have a chronic illness or be unemployed, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association…

ABC News

20 years after US welfare reform: Reflections and recommendations from those who were there:

20 years later, welfare is grim:

20 years after welfare reform: College students and benefits

Welfare reform didn’t help kids learn better : Most welfare dollars don’t go directly to poor people anymore

20 years later, poverty is up, but architects of “welfare reform” have no regrets

20 years later, how US welfare compares to other countries around the globe

How a Democrat killed welfare
And, even so, here’s how Americans’ views on welfare have changed in 20 years

Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors, Annual Report to Congress, 2015
HTML version :
PDF version (163 Pages) :
September 2015

Indicators of Welfare Dependence, Annual Report to Congress

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to study the most useful statistics for tracking and predicting dependence on three means-tested cash and nutritional assistance programs: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Food Stamps, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

Government website:
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

In Canada, Syrian Refugees Encounter a
Foreign Word : Welcome
How Canadian hockey moms, poker buddies and neighbors are adopting Syrians, a family at a time
July 1, 2016

Advocates for sponsorship believe that private citizens can achieve more than the government alone, raising the number of refugees admitted, guiding newcomers more effectively and potentially helping solve the puzzle of how best to resettle Muslims in Western countries. Some advocates even talk about extending the Canadian system across the globe [ ]

New York Times

President Obama's full speech at the Canadian Parliament (video, duration 48 minutes)
June 30, 2016
Watch President Obama speak at the Canadian Parliament with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau about the deep and abiding friendship between Canada and the United States.

May 8, 2016
Dear Mr. Trump

NOTE (by Gilles) : Because I was born and raised in Canada, I won't be eligible to vote in the American Presidential Election in November of this year. However, I don't want to miss the opportunity of adding my name to and my support for this open letter to let the rest of the world know that we're not ALL a bunch of effing lunatics here in North America. Scary to consider that it might be The Donald, with his cool, calm demeanor and his political acumen (not!) whose finger will be hovering over the big red button in the Oval Office, awaiting his next temper tantrum...

Dear Mr. Trump
Add your voice to the open letter from AVAAZ below -- when enough people sign, it will run as a full page ad in major newspapers around the world.

"Dear Mr. Trump,

This is not what greatness looks like. The world rejects your fear, hate-mongering, and bigotry. We reject your support for torture, your calls for murdering civilians, and your general encouragement of violence. We reject your denigration of women, Muslims, Mexicans, and millions of others who don’t look like you, talk like you, or pray to the same god as you. Facing your fear we choose compassion. Hearing your despair we choose hope. Seeing your ignorance we choose understanding.

As citizens of the world, we stand united against your brand of division."

According to The Guardian (U.K), AVAAZ is the globe's largest and most powerful online activist network.
The AVAAZ website says it is a global web movement to bring people-powered politics to decision-making everywhere.


In 2015, the state of New Hampshire had the lowest state poverty rate as % of the population : 9.2%.
The state with the highest poverty rate was Mississippi at 21.5%.
"Overall poverty rate" means the % of people who had incomes below the poverty line ($23,834 for a family of four in 2014.)

States Ranked by Overall Poverty Rate (2014)

Overall Poverty 2015


New from the Centre on Budget and Policy Priorities
[ ]
and the U.S. Census Bureau
[ ] :

Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the U.S.: 2014
September 16, 2015
In 2014, there was no statistically significant change from 2013 in either real median household income or the official poverty rate.

Larger Census Survey Indicates Poverty Down, Income Up in 2014
American Community Survey May Be More Telling Than Yesterday’s “Official” Survey
September 17, 2015
The Census Bureau’s latest American Community Survey (ACS), which it released today, found that poverty fell and median income rose in 2014 — in contrast with yesterday’s Census release, based on the Current Population Survey (CPS), which showed that poverty and income were statistically unchanged in 2014 compared to 2013.

American Community Survey

Related links:

Income and Poverty in the United States: 2014 (PDF - 2.2MB, 80 pages)
September 16, 2015

The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2014 (small PDF file, 22 pages)
September 2015
Another Census Bureau report, The Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2014, was also released today

Latest Local Health Insurance Statistics Available through ACS
September 17, 2015
Statistics on More Than 40 Social, Economic and Housing Topics Provide Comprehensive Profile of Communities Nationwide

Blog : Safety Net Programs Lift Millions From Poverty, New Census Data Show
September 16, 2015

Greenstein : New Census Data Show Historic Health Coverage Gains, Though Disappointing Results on Poverty and Income
September 16, 2015

Blog : Brain Studies Highlight Importance of Anti-Poverty Policies for Children
August 6, 2015

[U.S.] Beyond the Numbers
For readers who love stats and facts, Beyond the Numbers, which is published biweekly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics [ ], will provide hours of fresh insights on a range of topics. The home page always features the latest update, as well as three recent articles (available in PDF format), such as "Understanding health plan types: What's in a name?" However, the real meat of the site can be found by browsing the Archive, which takes readers to topics dating all the way back to 1996 when the feature was first published. The archives can be browsed in chronological order. They can also be searched utilizing seven distinct themes, including employment & unemployment, global economy, regional economics, and others.

The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout 1994-2015.

From The White House:

Middle Class Economics: The President’s Fiscal Year 2016 Budget
February 2, 2015
The President's 2016 Budget is designed to bring middle class economics into the 21st Century. This Budget shows what we can do if we invest in America's future and commit to an economy that rewards hard work, generates rising incomes, and allows everyone to share in the prosperity of a growing America. It lays out a strategy to strengthen our middle class and help America's hard-working families get ahead in a time of relentless economic and technological change. And it makes the critical investments needed to accelerate and sustain economic growth in the long run, including in research, education, training, and infrastructure.

These proposals will help working families feel more secure with paychecks that go further, help American workers upgrade their skills so they can compete for higher-paying jobs, and help create the conditions for our businesses to keep generating good new jobs for our workers to fill, while also fulfilling our most basic responsibility to keep Americans safe.
The Budget achieves about $1.8 trillion in deficit reduction, primarily from reforms to health programs, our tax code, and immigration.

Budget Excerpts:

What the budget does to help middle-class families to get ahead:
--- Improves Access to High-Quality Child Care and Early Education.
Expands access to quality, affordable child care.
--- Cuts taxes for families paying for child care with a credit of up to $3,000 per child.
--- Increases the duration of Head Start programs and invests in high quality infant and toddler care.
--- Supports universal preschool.
--- Lays the groundwork for Preschool for All.
--- Invests in voluntary, evidence-based home visiting.
--- Reforming the Tax Code to Reward and Support Work.
--- Encouraging State Paid Leave Initiatives.
--- Ensuring Access to Quality, Affordable Health Care.
--- Helping All Workers Save for Retirement.
--- Helping Americans Upgrade Their Skills.
--- Making a High-Quality College Education More Affordable (tuition-free community college for responsible students).
--- Expanding Technical Training Programs for Middle Class Jobs.
--- Keeping Americans Safe at Home and Abroad.
--- much more...

Through these policies, the President’s Budget brings annual deficits well below the 40-year historical average of 3.2 percent of GDP during every year of the budget window.

The White House : Budget


From the
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities:

President’s Budget Would Expand Opportunity, Help Middle- and Low-Income Families
February 2, 2015
In his surprisingly ambitious budget released today [ ] , President Obama has made proposals that would make progress — in some cases modest, in others large — in various areas in which policy sclerosis has prevented the nation from addressing significant problems.

Robert Greenstein's statement [ ] explains that Obama's budget would expand opportunity, especially for children; reform various programs and tax incentives to make them more effective; and help large numbers of middle- and low-income families while scaling back inefficient tax shelters that mainly benefit those at the top.

The budget should also strengthen economic growth.
[ ]

It would curb tax-driven economic distortions and invest part of the savings in initiatives that should make the labor force larger and more productive, such as pre-school education and child care, improved college access, stronger tax incentives for people to work, and much-needed infrastructure investments.

Find out more:

Full statement:

PDF of statement (3 pp.):

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is one of the nation’s premier policy organizations working at the federal and state levels on fiscal policy and public programs that affect low- and moderate-income families and individuals.


From the
e w ork Times:

[ ]

Obama Budget Includes Items to Lure G.O.P. to Negotiate
By Jonathan Weisman
President Obama’s budget rests on tax increases and an immigration overhaul that have little chance in Congress, but proposals on sequestration and the highway trust fund could take root.

42 Comments about this article:


In Budget, Obama's Unfettered Case for Spreading the Wealth


Graphic: Obama’s Priorities


Liberal Aspirations, Set Out as a Budget


From the
Washington Post:
[ ]

Obama may have new leverage with his budget

A breakdown of the plan, agency by agency

Key Q&As about new budget

The Fix: Why U.S. can spend again

1.3% raise sought for federal workers

2015 State of the Union Address

January 20, 2015
Click the link above and then anywhere in the image
to watch the video (duration 61 minutes) of the
2015 State of the Union Address
by President Barack Obama
- includes links to dozens of related articles


From CNN:

Obama State of the Union 2015
Complete Text Transcript

Republican State of the Union response: Full text


From VOX:
[ ]

A guide to the policies Obama mentioned in the 2015 State of the Union
January 20, 2015

The State of the Union, in 4 minutes (video, duration 4:12)
Updated by Joe Posner on January 21, 2015

The real state of the union, in 33 maps and charts
By Matthew Yglesias
January 20, 2015


Washington Post coverage of SOTU 2015
* Assertive call to reform tax code, fight terrorism
* Senate GOP leader: Obama ‘doesn’t set the agenda’
* ‘Shadow of crisis has passed’ - Obama says the improving economy vindicates his policies
* Dissecting, analyzing what Obama said
* A speech that both soared and fell flat
* Much more...


NY Times coverage of SOTU 2015
* Confident Obama Pushes Broad Agenda in Congress
* A Bold Call to Action, Even if No Action Is Likely
* G.O.P. Response to Obama’s Sweeping Proposals: ‘No’
* A President Outgunned but Combative

Housing: Spotlight on Statistics
This website by the Bureau of Labor Statistics [ ] is packed with stats about housing. For anyone who is curious about how homeowners, renters, and the housing industry have taken the hits of the Great Recession, this site is a welcome resource. Available online or as a downloadable PDF, readers will learn about customer spending on household items, employment in residential construction and housing related industries, prices for household items and commodities, and injuries in occupations related to construction and home-building. Graphs, charts, and tables bring the points home in a digestible, informative style.

Source of the
above site review:
The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout 1994-2015.

Perspectives on Inequality and Opportunity from the Survey of Consumer Finances:
Speech by Janet Yellen, Chair of US Federal Reserve At the Conference on Economic
Opportunity and Inequality, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
HTML version :
PDF version (454K, 33 pages) :

October 17, 2014
The distribution of income and wealth in the United States has been widening more or less steadily for several decades, to a greater extent than in most advanced countries. This trend paused during the Great Recession because of larger wealth losses for those at the top of the distribution and because increased safety-net spending helped offset some income losses for those below the top. But widening inequality resumed in the recovery, as the stock market rebounded, wage growth and the healing of the labor market have been slow, and the increase in home prices has not fully restored the housing wealth lost by the large majority of households for which it is their primary asset.
In my remarks, I will review trends in income and wealth inequality over the past several decades, then identify and discuss four sources of economic opportunity in America--think of them as "building blocks" for the gains in income and wealth that most Americans hope are within reach of those who strive for them.

Four Building Blocks of Opportunity:
1. Resources available to children in their most formative years;
2. Higher education that students and their families can afford;
3. Ownership of a private business;
4. Inheritances.

The transcript of this speech contains 43 endnotes, many of which offer links to more detailed studies.

U.S. Federal Reserve System


- Go to the Income and Wealth Inequality Links page:

The War on Poverty : 50 Years Later
A House Budget Committee Report
(PDF - 5.6MB, 205 pages, 683 footnotes)
March 3, 2014
Chapter 1: Cash Aid
Chapter 2: Education and Job Training
Chapter 3: Energy
Chapter 4: Food Aid
Chapter 5: Health Care
Chapter 6: Housing
Chapter 7: Social Services
Chapter 8: Veterans
Appendix I: Measures of Poverty
Appendix II: Data (Excel spreadsheet) [ ]
Charts (PDF - 808K, 98 pages):
- incl. 98 charts showing expenditures in the above program areas from 2003 to 2012!

Excerpt (page 3-4):
"The War on Poverty at a Glance:
Despite trillions of dollars in spending, poverty is widespread:
• In 1965, the poverty rate was 17.3 percent. In 2012, it was 15 percent.
• Over the past three years, “deep poverty” has reached its highest level on record.
• About 21.8 percent of children live below the poverty line.
This report catalogues the most significant federal programs and tax provisions that try to reduce poverty or to increase upward mobility. Over the past year, the staff of the House Budget Committee has identified over 90 such programs, ranging from nutrition assistance to job training. In some cases, these programs have helped. But in others, they have been counterproductive."

House of Representatives
Committee on the Budget


Related links:

Mr. Ryan’s Small Ideas on Poverty
March 3, 2014
Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin, the House Budget Committee chairman, has an important role to play within the Republican Party. He provides polished intellectual cover for his party to mow down as many antipoverty programs as it can see. Most Congressional Republicans would love nothing more than to eviscerate programs like Medicaid, Head Start and food stamps. But so as not to appear cruel and uncaring, they need a high-minded excuse to do so.That’s what Mr. Ryan gave them on Monday in a 204-page report [see link below] that finds flaws with almost every attempt the government has made to relieve poverty and its effects since the 1960s.
The most successful programs, including the earned income tax credit, Medicaid and food stamps, have been those that are carefully designed, properly managed and well-financed. For all their glossy reports, Republicans have shown no interest in making these or any other social programs work better.

New York Times


The Hammock Fallacy
March 6, 2014
By Paul Krugman
To understand where the new report is coming from, it helps to recall something Mr. Ryan said [ ]two years ago: “We don’t want to turn the safety net into a hammock that lulls able-bodied people to lives of dependency and complacency, that drains them of their will and their incentive to make the most of their lives.” There are actually two assertions here. First, antipoverty programs breed complacency; that is, they discourage work. Second, complacency — the failure of the poor to work as much as they should — is what perpetuates poverty.
It is, in a way, nice to see the likes of Mr. Ryan at least talking about the need to help the poor. But somehow their notion of aiding the poor involves slashing benefits while cutting taxes on the rich. Funny how that works.

New York Times

From the
Council of Economic Advisers (The White House):

The Economic Impact of the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Five Years Later:
Final Report to Congress
(PDF - 904K, 70 pages)
February 2014

Excerpt from the Executive Summary:

Five years ago, on February 17, 2009, less than a month into his first term, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, also known as the Recovery Act, or ARRA. In the four years following the Recovery Act, the President built on this initial step, signing into law over a dozen fiscal measures aiming to speed job creation, including extending Emergency Unemployment Compensation, measures for teacher jobs, aid to states for Medicaid, a temporary 2 percent payroll tax cut for 160 million working Americans, an even greater allowance for businesses to write off the cost of investments when computing their tax liability, the cash-for-clunkers program, an expanded homebuyer tax credit, additional business tax incentives and small business tax cuts, the HIRE Act tax credit, and incentives to hire veterans. Thanks in significant part to the actions of President Obama, the economic picture today is much brighter.
As part of the accountability and transparency provisions included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) [ ], the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) was charged with providing to Congress quarterly reports on the effects of the Recovery Act on overall economic activity, and on employment in particular. In this final report, we provide an assessment of the effects of the Act through the fourth quarter of 2013 as well as an assessment of subsequent jobs measures.

Council of Economic Advisers (The White House)
The White House


Related links:

What the Stimulus Accomplished
By The Editorial Board
February 23, 2014
Of all the myths and falsehoods that Republicans have spread about President Obama, the most pernicious and long-lasting is that the $832 billion stimulus package did not work. Since 2009, Republican lawmakers have inextricably linked the words “failed” and “stimulus,” and last week, five years after passage of the Recovery Act, they dusted off their old playbook again.
Government spending worked, helping millions of people who never realized it. And it can work again, whenever lawmakers agree that putting people to work is more important than winning ideological fights.

New York Times


Overview of the TANF Provisions in the Economic Recovery Act
The TANF provisions in section 2101 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 created a new Emergency Contingency Fund under which states could receive 80 percent federal funding for increases (relative to a base year quarter) in certain TANF-related expenditures in federal fiscal years 2009 and 2010.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

The White House:

Health Reform in Action
The health insurance marketplace is open.
Find health coverage that meets your needs and budget.
- includes links to:
* At a Glance * About the new law * Relief for you * Myths & Facts * Recent health care news * Health care maps * About the Affordable Care Act (Stronger Rights & Protections - Better Access to Care - More Affordable Coverage - Stronger Medicare - special coverage info for: * Women & Families * Employers * Young Adults * Health Care Providers * Seniors * People with Disabilities


HealthCare. Gov
HealthCare.Gov is a federal government website managed by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [ ].


Health Insurance Blog


The Simplest Explanation Of Obamacare. Ever. (video, duration 6:53)


Affordable Care Act: Obamacare & Health Reform Facts


Understanding the Impact of Obamacare on Medicare


What does Marketplace health insurance cover?


Affordable Care Act: State-by-State Impact:


The Lifestyle Revolutionaries Guide to Addiction Intervention (PDF - 316K, 18 pages):


For earlier editions of the
State of the Union (SOTU) Address, see:
(This link will take you down further on the page you're now reading to a special collection of links to SOTU resources

New from
The White House:

Remarks by the President on Minimum Wage
January 29, 2014
(...) But what I talked about last night (in the State of the Union Address) was a simple but profound idea -- and it’s an idea that’s at the heart of who we are as Americans: Opportunity for everybody. Giving everybody a fair chance. If they’re willing to work hard, take responsibility, give them a shot. The idea that no matter who you are, where you come from, what you look like, what your last name is, if you work hard, you live up to your responsibilities, you can succeed; you can support a family. That's what America should be about. Nobody is looking for a free lunch, but give people a chance. If they’re working hard, make sure they can support a family.


Remarks by the President on Retirement
January 29, 2014Excerpt:
So this is the opportunity agenda that's going to help restore some sense of economic security in this 21st century economy. We want jobs that are more plentiful. We want skills that keep you employable. We want savings that are portable. We want health care that’s yours and that's not going to be canceled when you really need it. We want every American who works hard and takes responsibility to retire with dignity after decades of honest work. These are real, practical, achievable solutions to help shift the odds back a little bit in favor of more working and middle-class Americans, so that if they work hard, they can get ahead and they can leave something for the next generation.

The White House

The 2014 Federal Budget, Per Person
By Wilson Andrews and Alicia Parlapiano
January 18, 2014
The House and Senate last week passed a hefty spending bill that included $1.1 trillion in discretionary spending for 2014 and provided funds for some mandatory programs (though the bill does not control the levels of that spending). Because it can be hard to comprehend the scale of large government programs, here is a look at a selection of those included in the bill (and a couple of others), expressed in cost per U.S. resident.

New York Times

Census Bureau Introduces New Interactive Mapping Tool along with Latest American Community Survey Statistics
December 17, 2013
The U.S. Census Bureau released Census Explorer [ ], a new interactive mapping tool that gives users easier access to neighborhood level statistics. The mapping tool uses updated statistics from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS) [ ], which were also released today.

U.S. Census Bureau

The Simplest Explanation Of Obamacare. Ever. (video, duration 6:53)

From the
U.S. Census Bureau:
[ ]

Census Bureau's American Community Survey Provides
Income, Poverty, Health Insurance Statistics for States and Local Areas
September 10, 2013
Income levels and poverty rates were not statistically different for most states and metro areas from 2011 to 2012, according to statistics released today from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey. Incomes remained lower and poverty rates were higher in 2012 than in 2007, the year before the recession. The percentage of people without health insurance fell in most states in 2012 from 2010 levels, after rising between 2008 to 2010. The survey began asking about health insurance in 2008.
The 2012 American Community Survey provides a multitude of statistics that measure the social, economic and housing conditions of U.S. communities. More than 40 topics are available with today's release, such as educational attainment, housing, employment, commuting, language spoken at home, nativity, ancestry and selected monthly homeowner costs.

Today's local-level income, poverty and health insurance results from the American Community Survey follow Tuesday's release of the national measures for each, drawn from the Current Population Survey.


2012 American Community Survey


12 related links:

September 19, 2013
2012 American Community Survey (12 articles from American media)

Poverty Dispatch

- Go to the Links to American Government Social Research Links page:

Mindlessly Gutting Food Stamps
September 8, 2013
Among the many scars of the recession, the most intolerable should be the pangs of chronic hunger that still assail a stunning 14.5 percent of the nation’s households, according to the Department of Agriculture’s latest survey (See Related Link below). A decade ago, the figure was 11 percent — a group defined as regularly suffering food “insecurity,” or having 26 percent less to spend on food than households not going hungry. The survey shows that food insecurity rose with the recession and has remained stubbornly high.

New York Times

Related link:

Household Food Security in the United States in 2012
By Alisha Coleman-Jensen, Mark Nord, and Anita Singh
September 2013
- main report page, includes links to the complete report, an executive summary, related topics, related data and more

More info:
U.S. Dept of Agriculture


- Go to the Food Banks and Hunger Links page:

Obama vows to end homelessness in 10 years
June 22, 2010
Opening Doors : A Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness [PDF - 3MB, 74 pages : ], calls for ending child and family homelessness in 10 years while wiping out chronic homelessness and homelessness among veterans in five years. According to the 74-page plan, "Stable housing is the foundation upon which people build their lives — absent a safe, decent, affordable place to live, it is next to impossible to achieve good health, positive educational outcomes or reach one's economic potential."


[U.S. Poverty Measurement]

There may be millions more poor people in the US than you think
By Erin McClam
May 3, 2013
It is responsible for an estimated half-trillion dollars in federal spending every year, is hated by nearly everyone who studies it and is based on an American lifestyle older than the space program. Yet the figure known as the “poverty line” is almost certainly here to stay. That’s partly because a more accurate measure of who is poor could add millions of Americans to the rolls — something few lawmakers want to have happen on their watch.
"In Plain Sight" --- a special initiative by NBC News to report on poverty in America.
NBC News

For links to more info on American poverty measures, go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page: (formerly is the federal government website for comprehensive information on disability programs and services in communities nationwide. The site links to more than 14,000 resources from federal, state and local government agencies; academic institutions; and nonprofit organizations

Information by Topic:
(On home page)
* Benefits * Civil Rights * Community Life * Education * Emergency Preparedness * Employment * Health * Housing * Technology * Transportation

A Profile of the Working Poor, 2011 (PDF - 2.1MB, 16 pages)
April 2013
In 2011, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 46.2 million people, or 15.0 percent of the nation’s population, lived below the official poverty level. Although the poor were primarily children and adults who had not participated in the labor force during the year, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 10.4 million individuals were among the “working poor” in 2011; this measure was little changed from 2010.
Demographic characteristics
Educational attainment
Unrelated individuals
Labor market problems
Statistical Tables
Technical Notes

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics


More reports about workers and poverty in America:

Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity

The White House:

President Obama Announces His 2015 Budget

Fiscal Year 2015
Budget of the U.S. Government
(PDF - 2.5MB, 218 pages)
See especially:
* Department of Health and Human Services (p.73-85)
* Department of Housing and Urban Development (p.91-94)
* Department of Agriculture (p.45-49)
* Social Security Administration (p.149-150)
NOTE : Several other federal departments and agencies are involved in addressing poverty as part of their mandate.
You can search the official budget document for poverty initiatives by pressing and holding the Control key on your computer keyboard while you type the letter "F". This opens a Search box. Type the word "poverty" (without the quote marks) and click the Enter button in the search box. I did, and I found the word "poverty" 28 times in this 200-page document. By way of comparison, the number of mentions of the word "poverty" in the 427-page 2014 Canadian federal budget [ ] tabled on February 11 (2014) is exactly ZERO.
For more info on and critique of the 2014-2015 Canadian federal budget, see


Obama’s Budget Is a Populist Wish List and an Election Blueprint
March 4, 2014
President Obama sent Congress a $3.9 trillion budget request on Tuesday that stands as a platform for Democrats to run on in this election year, full of policies intended to invite contrasts with Republicans rather than offer compromises as he did last year, without success. (...) The document, his sixth budget, seeks to energize Democratic voters with populist proposals like a more generous tax credit for the working poor, paid for with higher taxes on the rich.

New York Times


The President’s 2015 Budget: Thoughtful Responses to Poverty
Supporting low-income Americans is not a single-issue policy agenda. To have a fair chance to succeed, children need a good education, including early education; young people need access to workforce training and post-secondary education; low-income workers need help making ends meet while they move up into jobs that support their families; and, everyone needs a bustling economy that provides plenty of chances for steady work. The 2015 budget President Obama laid out this week reflects exactly that type of multi-faceted investment strategy.

Since 1969, CLASP has been a trusted resource, a creative architect for systems change, and one of the country's most effective voices for low income people. - See more at:


Obama 2015 budget: $3.9 trillion

President Obama's FY2015 budget remarks (13-minute video + transcript)


2014 United States Federal Budget
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
April 10, 2013
The 2014 United States federal budget is the budget to fund government operations for the fiscal year 2014, which begins on October 1, 2013 and ends on September 30, 2014.(...) The actual appropriations for fiscal year 2014 must be enacted by the full Congress before they can take effect, in accordance with the United States budget process.
NOTE (by Gilles): If you're not familiar with the United States budget process or the 2014 U.S. budget, I recommend the above eight-page Wikipedia article as an excellent starting point. At the end of the article, you'll find links to two dozen online resources and useful websites.

The White House Blog:
[ ]

President Obama Sends Congress his Fiscal Year 2014 Budget
April 10, 2013
In his 2013 State of the Union address [ Feb 13, 2013 : ], President Obama said that we must invest in the true engine of America’s economic growth – a rising and thriving middle class. He said that every day, we must ask ourselves these three questions: "How do we attract more jobs to our shores? How do we equip our people with the skills needed to do those jobs? And how do we make sure that hard work leads to a decent living?"

This morning the President sent Congress his Budget for Fiscal Year 2014, which presents his plan to address each of these questions. He also spoke to the press about his proposal in the Rose Garden, and said that while our economy is poised for progress, we need to get smarter about our priorities as a nation. And that’s what his 2014 Budget represents -- a fiscally-responsible blueprint for middle-class jobs and growth

The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2014
* The Budget * Overview * Analytical Perspectives * Historical Tables * Supplemental Materials
NOTE : Use the links in the left margin to navigate the budget content pages.

Key Budget Facts
(Excerpts from the Budget Overview):
Making America a Magnet for Jobs
* Building a 21st Century Infrastructure
* Equipping Americans with the Skills They Need
* Making the Tax Code More Simple and Fair
* Ensuring Hard Work Leads to a Decent Living
* Cutting the Deficit in a Balanced Way

The White House


Related links

Official text of the resolution:
Senate Concurrent Resolution 8 - An original concurrent resolution
setting forth the congressional budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014


From the
Washington Post

Obama’s 2014 budget is an offer to negotiate


From the
New York Times:

A Budget Focus on Inequality

Obama Budget Opens Rift for Democrats on Social Benefits


From the
Federal Times:

The 2014 budget request: agency by agency
April 10, 2013

The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2013
February 13, 2012

Each year, the President of the United States submits his budget request to Congress for the following fiscal year (beginning October 1), as required by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. Current law (31 U.S.C. § 1105(a)) requires the President to submit a budget no earlier than the first Monday in January, and no later than the first Monday in February.
Excerpt from United States federal budget:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2013
February 13, 2012
After decades of eroding middle-class security as those at the very top saw their incomes rise as never before and after a historic recession that plunged our economy into a crisis from which we are still fighting to recover, it is time to construct an economy that is built to last.
- includes links to:
* President's Message * Mid-Session review * The Budget * Overview * Cuts, Consolidations and Savings * Analytical Perspectives * Historical Tables * Supplemental Materials * Appendix * Supplementals, Amendments, and Releases * OMB Contributors to the Budget * Fact Sheets * Past Budgets

The Budget:
HTML version
(Table of contents + links to each section of the Budget and summary tables, all in separate PDF files)
PDF version (4.6MB, 256 pages, all in one PDF file)

Office of Management and Budget

[ The White House ]

Also from
the White House:

President Obama's 2013 Budget is a Blueprint for an America Built to Last
By Matt Compton
February 13, 2012
White House Blog


Related links:

(Center for Law and Social Policy):

CLASP Statement on the proposed budget for Fiscal Year 2013
February 15, 2012
On Monday, President Obama released his proposed budget for Fiscal Year 2013. After looking through the proposal, CLASP believes that given the difficult political and economic environment, the president's budget sets the right tone and lays out a vision for restoring prosperity and creating broader opportunity.
While the proposal includes a plan for long-term deficit reduction, it makes short-term investments in child care and early education programs, workforce development, and postsecondary education and training. In addition, the president calls for a fairer tax code by raising taxes for the wealthiest, eliminating corporate tax loopholes, and permanently expanding tax credits for working poor and middle class families.
Email alert from CLASP

CLASP Full Statement on the Proposed Budget

NOTE : Scroll to the bottom of the full statement for links to the following CLASP responses to the president's FY 2013 budget by issue:
* President's Budget Includes Subsidized Employment and Job Training Opportunities
* President Proposes to Restore Legal Aid Funding, But More Is Needed
* President's Budget Includes Promising News for Early Childhood
* President's Proposal Demonstrates Commitment to Disconnected Youth, but Doesn't Go Far Enough
* Education and Training Are Top Priorities in President Obama's 2013 Budget
President Proposes New Investments in America's Workforce

The budget process now moves to Congress. CLASP will continue working with our partners to advocate for an inclusive budget that’s fair and invests in sound policies that provide opportunity for families to access the education, training and other resources they need to thrive.

CLASP (Center for Law and Social Policy)
Since 1969, CLASP has been a trusted resource, a creative architect for systems change, and one of the country's most effective voices for low income people.


From the
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP):

Statement by Robert Greenstein, President, on President Obama’s 2013 Budget
February 16, 2012
By Robert Greenstein
The President’s budget would, if enacted, make significant progress in reducing deficits, although policymakers would have to take further steps, especially for future decades. Under its economic assumptions, it would achieve what most budget analysts, and all recent bipartisan commissions or panels, have identified as the crucial fiscal goal for the decade ahead — stabilizing the debt so that it no longer rises faster than the economy. To meet that goal, deficits must shrink to a bit less than 3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the President’s budget would stabilize deficits at 2.8% of GDP from 2019 through 2022. The budget also would stop the debt from rising as a share of the economy in 2014 and reduce it slightly as a share of GDP over the following eight years.

View the full statement:

HTML version:

PDF version (small PDF file, 3 pages) 3pp.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP)


From the
Washington Post:

Obama budget: National debt will be $1 trillion higher in a decade than forecast
By Lori Montgomery
February 13
President Obama rolled out an election-year budget on Monday that would delay action to reduce the national debt in favor of fresh spending on Democratic priorities aimed at rebuilding the American middle class. In his final budget request before facing voters in November, Obama called for $350 billion in new stimulus to maintain lower payroll taxes, bolster domestic manufacturing, lure jobs back from overseas, hire teachers, retrain workers and fix the nation’s crumbling infrastructure. There would be only modest trims to federal health-care programs and no changes to Social Security, the biggest drivers of future borrowing, despite last year’s raucous political debate over the federal debt.

Washington Post


From the
New York Times:

A Responsible Budget
February 13, 2012
President Obama’s 2013 budget was greeted on Monday with Republican catcalls that it is simply a campaign document, but election-year budgets are supposed to explain priorities to voters. This one offers a clear and welcome contrast to the slashing austerity — and protect-the-wealthy priorities — favored by Republican Congressional leaders and the party’s presidential candidates

Four Ways to Slice Obama’s 2013 Budget Proposal
Explore every nook and cranny of President Obama's federal budget proposal.

New York Times:

Sequestration Cuts and Safety Net Programs
Selected media coverage from
Poverty Dispatch:

March 1, 2013
States and Medicaid Expansion (2 articles)
Child Welfare Reform – Colorado
Sequestration Cuts and Safety Net Programs (7 articles)
--- Advocates warn sequester could mean big cuts for the low-income
--- Sequestration’s effects: WIC program may cut free food to low-income children
--- Automatic US budget cuts would go deeper than the military in Virginia, to child care, elders
--- Nationwide cuts could trouble low-income children, seniors
--- Jobless, cities could be first to feel budget pain
--- State reverses decision on suspending federal jobless benefits
--- Arizona jobless could see compensation reduced

From the
Census Bureau:

Census Bureau Releases 2011 New Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) Research Findings
November 14, 2012
The Census Bureau, with support from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, today released its second annual report, The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2011, describing research on a new supplemental poverty measure. This measure extends information provided by the official poverty measure, released Sept. 12, by explicitly including benefits from many of the government programs designed to assist low-income families and individuals.

Today's report compares 2011 supplemental poverty estimates to 2011 official poverty estimates for numerous demographic groups at the national level. In addition, for the first time, the report presents supplemental poverty estimates for states, using three-year averages. At the national level, the report also compares 2010 supplemental poverty estimates with 2011 estimates and examines the effect of excluding individual resource or expenditure elements.

According to the report, the supplemental poverty measure rate was 16.1 percent last year, which was higher than the official measure of 15.0 percent. Neither the supplemental measure nor the official poverty rate was significantly different from the corresponding rate in 2010.

Complete report:

The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2011 (812K, 32 pages)
By Kathleen Short
November 2012
This report provides a third year of estimates of a new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) for the United States. (...) The results illustrate differences between the
official measure of poverty and a poverty measure that takes account of in-kind benefits received by families and nondiscretionary expenses that they must pay. The SPM also employs a new poverty threshold that is updated with information on expenses for food, clothing, shelter, and utilities. Results showed higher poverty rates using the SPM than the official measure for most groups. [Excerpt, p.21]

Previous edition of this report:

The Research Supplemental Poverty Measure: 2010 (PDF - 876K, 24 pages)

Latest releases from the Census Bureau
on the Supplemental Poverty Measure
- incl. links to another five recent releases concerning the SPM

Census Bureau


Related link:

[U.S.] The Power of the Safety Net: What the Supplemental Poverty Measure Shows
By Arloc Sherman
November 14, 2012
The safety net – both permanent provisions and recent expansions enacted to help respond to the recession – kicked in to fight rising poverty in recent years, and a new measure shows how much it accomplished. The Census Bureau today [see below] released data on a new poverty measure, the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), that reveals a broader view of the safety net. Building on recommendations from a National Academy of Sciences panel in 1995, the SPM counts non-cash benefits and tax credits as income. The official poverty measure only counts cash benefits and other cash income. The SPM also subtracts taxes, child care and other work expenses, and out-of-pocket medical expenses from income and modestly revises the poverty line.

Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity
Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity: The Source for News, Ideas and Action is a non-partisan initiative that brings together diverse perspectives from the political, policy, advocacy and foundation communities to find genuine solutions to the economic hardship confronting millions of Americans.

See also:

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is one of the nation’s premier policy organizations working at the federal and state levels on fiscal policy and public programs that affect low- and moderate-income families and individuals.

OK, everybody in the progressive camp --- You may exhale now : FOUR MORE YEARS of Barack Obama.
November 7, 2012

Selected media coverage:

* New York Times:
Divided U.S. Gives Obama More Time --- Narrow
Victory Includes Near Sweep of Swing States

[ New York Times U.S. map of states voting Obama vs Romney: ]

* Washington Post:
A Second Term

* Toronto Star:
America gives Barack Obama another chance

* The Globe and Mail:
President Obama vows 'best is yet to come' after Romney concedes

* Huffington Post Canada:

65 Years of Tax Cuts for the Wealthy Created Record 'Inequality' Not 'Prosperity,' says Report
September 17, 2012
A new study by the non-partisan (govt.) Congressional Research Service [ ] , which reviewed nearly 65 years of US tax policy and its impact on the overall economy, has found that though cutting the effective tax rate for the nation's wealthiest is a great way to increase undesireable economic inequality, it does not—as Republican rhetoric so frequently claims—do anything to boost employment or fuel economic growth.
The report, Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945, found that "the reduction in the top tax rates have had little association with saving, investment, or productivity growth. However, the top tax rate reductions appear to be associated with the increasing concentration of income at the top of the income distribution."
Source of the above article:
Common Dreams
We share our readers’ progressive values of social justice, human rights, equality and peace. Common Dreams is committed to not only being your trusted news source, but to encouraging critical thinking and civic action on a diverse range of social, economic, and civil rights issues affecting individuals and their communities.


The complete report:

Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis
of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945
(PDF - 356K, 23 pages)
September 14, 2012
By Thomas L. Hungerford
Congressional Research Service
[ The Congressional Research Service is part of the
Library of Congress
- ]


- Go to the Income and Wealth Inequality Links page: is a federal government Web site worth checking out
By Derrick T. Dortch
July 26, 2012
The federal government has a massive amount* of Web sites. Many are good, some are not so good. is one of the good ones. It’s kind of a one-stop shop for government information. Of course, as with all federal sites, you won’t find everything, but you will find a good amount.
Washington Post


* Grammar Police re. "...a massive amount* of Web sites":

Use 'amount of' before singular things you cannot measure.
Use 'quantity of' before singular or plural things you can measure.
Use 'number of' before plural things you can measure.
Thus, "...The federal government has a massive NUMBER of Web sites."
In general, tangible objects (i.e., things you can touch) attract 'quantity of' and intangible objects attract 'amount of'.
Grammar Monster

From the
TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families ) and
CCDF (Child Care and Development Fund) Research Synthesis Project:

NOTE : The following synthesis briefs are PDF files varying in length from a few pages to 11 pages for the first file below. If you're not familiar with all of the components of the U.S. safety net, I highly recommend that you start with this first file, which explains how TANF fits into and interacts with the broader safety net.

TANF Research Synthesis Briefs:

* TANF and the Broader Safety Net, January 2012 (PDF - 907K)

* How Has the TANF Caseload Changed over Time? (PDF - 181K)
March 2012

* Facilitating Postsecondary Education and Training for TANF Recipients, March 2012 (PDF - 283K)

* TANF Work Requirements and State Strategies to Fulfill Them, March 2012 (PDF - 204K)

* Improving Employment and Earnings for TANF Recipients, March 2012 (PDF - 245K)

* TANF Child-Only Cases, January 2012 (PDF - 181K)

* Disconnected Families and TANF, November 2011 (PDF - 202K)

* TANF Recipients with Barriers to Employment, August 2011 (PDF - 181K)


CCDF Research Synthesis Briefs:

* What Can CCDF Learn from the Research on Children's Health and Safety in Child Care? March 2012 (PDF - 346K)

* A Summary of Research on How CCDF Policies Affect Providers, March 2012 (PDF - 277K)

* Client-Friendly Strategies: What Can CCDF Learn from Research on Other Systems? December 2011 (PDF - 248K]


The above briefs were prepared for OPRE by
the Urban Institute [ ]
and MDRC [ ].

[ The TANF and CCDF Research Synthesis Project was an initiative of the Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE) - ]
--- More OPRE Welfare & Employment Research links -
[ OPRE is part of the Administration for Children & Families (ACF) - ]
[ ACF is part of Health and Human Services - ]

America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2012

Federal report shows drops in infant mortality, preterm birth rates
Annual statistics compilation notes increases in poverty, drop in secure parental employment
Press Release
July 13, 2012
The infant mortality rate, the preterm birth rate, and the adolescent birth rate all continued to decline, average mathematics scores increased for 4th and 8th grade students, the violent crime victimization rate among youth fell, as did the percentage of young children living in a home where someone smoked, according to the federal government's annual statistical report on the well-being of the nation's children and youth. However, the percentage of children living in poverty increased, and the percentage of children with at least one parent employed full time, year-round decreased, the report said.

These and other findings are described in America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2012. The report was compiled by the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, a working group of 22 federal agencies that produce and use data on issues related to children and families.

NOTE : The above press release includes a dozen of the most significant findings
from the report and links to previous reports in this series back to 1997.

Complete report:

America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2012

HTML version:

PDF version (2.5MB, 24 pages) :

Table of contents:

Demographic Background
Family and Social Environment
Economic Circumstances
Health Care
Physical Environment and Safety
America's Children at a Glance
Forum Agencies
List of Tables
List of Figures
Data Source Descriptions

Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics
The Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics is a group of 22 Federal government agencies involved in research and activities related to children and families. The mission of the Forum is to foster coordination and collaboration and to enhance and improve consistency in the collection and reporting of Federal data on children and families. The Forum also aims to improve the reporting and dissemination of information on the status of children and families.

Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC)
The Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse is an ever growing virtual portal of research on low-income and TANF families and an online hub for professional networking among researchers, policymakers and practitioners who serve these populations. The SSRC aims to improve policy and practice in such areas as employment, education and training, and family self-sufficiency by improving access to field-tested, evidence-informed and evidence-based program strategies and high-quality research and by fostering professional connectivity among its targeted audiences

SSRC is an initiative of
The Administration for Children and Families Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE):

Browse the SSRC Clearinghouse by TOPIC:
Click on the link above, then select one of the topics below to explore resources and research relevant to that topic.
Asset-Building, Tax Policies, and Subsidies
* Child Care
* Child Support
* Community Development and Housing
* Education and Training
* Employment
* Family Formation and Family Structure
* Food Assistance
* General Research on Income and Poverty
* Health
* TANF Policy, Services, and Benefits
* Transportation

Selected site content:

Selected site content:

TANF child-only cases
[Temporary Assistance for Needy Families]
Olivia Golden and Amelia Hawkins
Abstract (excerpt):
Almost half of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cases are“child-only cases,” which arise when no adult is included in the benefit calculation. This exclusion can happen if children live with relatives (or, in some states, specified nonrelatives) instead of with their parents or if parents are ineligible for TANF for certain reasons other than income. (...)

Complete report (PDF - 184K, 9 pages)

Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC)



NOTE (by Gilles):
The TANF child-only category is one of many reasons that Canadian and U.S. welfaresystems should not be compared out of context.
In Canada, there is a "child-only category" in some - but not all - provincial social assistance programs. That category, also known as Child in the Home of a Relative, applies only to children whose parents are unable to care for them, usually on a temporary basis. Nationally, the number of children receiving social assistance as a separate case and living with a relative is very low, hardly a blip. In other provinces, those same children would be placed in the care of a foster home or group home under the Child Welfare Act or similar statute.

Bottom line:

TANF child-only cases make up almost half of the TANF caseload in the U.S.
In Canada, child-only cases are rare in welfare programs.
This is only one reason to avoid comparing Canadian and American welfare systems.
They're simply not comparable out-of-context.

Click the link below for 75+ links to more info regarding differences between the Canadian and American welfare systems.

Welfare in Canada vs the U.S.

Human Services and Housing Supports to Address Family Homelessness:
Promising Practices in the Field
ASPE* Research Brief
[*Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation]

November 2011
HTML version:
PDF version (700K, 20 pages)

About This Research Brief:
This ASPE Research Brief explores local programs for linking human services and housing supports to prevent and end family homelessness. The Research Brief is based on interviews with stakeholders in 14 communities nationwide, highlighting key practices that facilitated the implementation and ongoing sustainability of the programs. The Research Brief was prepared by Abt Associates under contract with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Table of contents:
Summary of Findings
Promising Practices
Promising Practices Among Programs with PHA Involvement

Human Services Policy

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

April 9, 2012

New study from the
U.S. Department of Agriculture:

Alleviating Poverty in the United States: The Critical Role of SNAP Benefits
By Laura Tiehen, Dean Jolliffe, and Craig Gundersen
April 2012
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is one of the largest safety net programs in the United States, serving 44.7 million individuals in an average month in 2011. We used Current Population Survey data to examine the effect of SNAP on poverty from 2000 to 2009, by adding program benefits to income and calculating how SNAP benefits affected the prevalence, depth, and severity of poverty.

Complete report (PDF - 3.48MB, 30 pages):

Report summary (PDF - 1.2MB, 2 pages):

Report abstract:
- includes a Zip file with all charts and graphs (in .png format) from this report

Economic Research Service of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture:


Related links:

From the
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP):

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Helps Struggling Families Put Food On The Table
April 9, 2012
[formerly the Food Stamp program]
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the nation’s most important anti-hunger program. SNAP reaches millions of people in need of food assistance. It is one of the few means-tested government benefit programs available to almost all households with low incomes. For more detail on the program’s basics, see

SNAP is an efficient part of the nationwide safety net. Payment accuracy – the delivery of the correct amount of benefits to eligible households – is at an all-time high. For more on the program’s efficiency, see

This chartbook highlights some of the key characteristics of the approximately 46 million people using the program as well as trends and data on program administration and use.
Part I: SNAP is highly responsive to poverty and the economy
Part II: Benefits are modest
Part III: SNAP serves very vulnerable people
Part IV: SNAP supports working families and those unable to work
Part V: With some important exceptions, SNAP reaches most eligible people
Part VI: SNAP is efficient and effective
Part VII: SNAP is an important public/private partnership

It is intended to complement more detailed analysis on particular aspects of SNAP, available on our website:

Related areas of CBPP research:

Food Assistance

Food Stamps

Poverty and Income



Food Stamps Helped Reduce Poverty Rate, Study Finds
By Sabrina Tavernise
April 9, 2012
WASHINGTON — A new study by the Agriculture Department has found that food stamps, one of the country’s largest social safety net programs, reduced the poverty rate substantially during the recent recession. The food stamp program, formally known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP, reduced the poverty rate by nearly 8 percent in 2009, the most recent year included in the study, a significant impact for a social program whose effects often go unnoticed by policy makers.

New York Times

Fifteenth Annual Welfare Research and Evaluation Conference
May 30–June 1, 2012
Omni Shoreham Hotel
Washington, DC
The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is pleased to announce that the 15th Annual Welfare Research and Evaluation Conference will be held May 30–June 1, 2012 at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, DC.
The 2012 conference will provide another exciting opportunity to learn about the latest findings from evaluations of welfare and poverty programs and policies, discuss ways to incorporate findings into the design and implementation of programs, and develop strategies for future evaluations. Conference presentations will feature both basic and applied research and will be addressed to both researchers and practitioners.

Before you get all excited....

The 2012 conference agenda hadn't been posted yet when I checked this site on March 3/12. A link to the 2012 agenda will be included in the Canadian Social Research Newsletter as soon as it's available on the conference site. In the meantime, the event organizers suggest that you check out the 2011 Agenda and Session Footage to get a taste of the types of presentations to expect this year.

2011 Agenda and Session Footage

WOW --- Jackpot!
The 2011 agenda is a detailed program for the three days of the conference, and it includes twelve video sessions lasting from 70 to 80 minutes each.
I watched a few, and I was so impressed by the quality content from the government and academic experts on the panels that I decided to include the complete list of videos below. [To watch a video from the list below, click the above agenda link and scroll down the page to click on a specific video link.]
[ TANF = Temporary Assistance for Needy Families ]

* TANF During a Time of High Unemployment and Limited Resources
* Job Training as a Means Towards Labor Market Advancement
* Fathers, Their Effect on Family Self-Sufficiency and Federal- and State-Led Responses
* TANF Child-Only Cases
* Subsidized Employment in the TANF Emergency Fund
* The Future of the U.S. Labor Market: A Conversation on Challenges and Next Steps
* Understanding Disconnected Families
* Disadvantaged Youth: Supporting Transitions to a Successful Adulthood
* Higher Education for TANF Recipients
* Federal Collaboration Around Career Pathways
* TANF Performance Measures
* Applying Behavioral Perspectives to Strengthening the Safety Net and Stabilizing Low-Income Families

NOTE: If you're on a "light" Internet account that requires you to limit your downloads, you may want to take a pass on the videos for the 2011 and 2010 conferences. Each of the two-hour videos below will run just under 300MB.

2010 Agenda and Session Footage
[To watch a video from the list below, click the above agenda link and scroll down the page to click on a specific video link.]
(Each video sessions lasts almost two hours.)

* Welcome and Introductory Remarks
* The Role of Evidence in Policy
* TANF Reauthorization: Future Directions for the TANF Program
* The Future of Employment, Retention and Advancement: How Do We Move Forward?
* Child Well-Being and Economic Downturns
* Transitional Jobs and Subsidized Employment for Retention and Advancement
* Men, Fathers and Income Support Policy
* Connections to Businesses: A Path to Improved Retention and Advancement?
* Cross-Agency Collaboration in the Federal Government: Identifying and Promoting Shared Interests
* Employment Strategies for the Hard-to-Serve
* Invitation to the National Association of Welfare Research and Statistics Conference

Earlier conferences in this series (back to 2006)

Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

Administration for Children and Families

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

From the
U.S. Conference of Mayors:

Hunger and Homelessness Survey
A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America’s Cities
A 29-City Survey
(PDF - 9.2MB, 107 pages)
December 2011

News Release
Joblessness leads to more hungry and homeless families in the U.S. cities (PDF - 192K, 3 pages)
December 15, 2011
Washington, D.C. – In the midst of a struggling economy and continuing high levels of unemployment, U.S. cities are feeling the pressure from increased numbers of hungry and homeless families according to a U.S. Conference of Mayors (USCM) report on the status of Hunger and Homelessness in 29 cities in America (below) that was released today by the U.S. Conference of Mayors on a news conference call.

U.S. Conference of Mayors
The U.S. Conference of Mayors is the official nonpartisan organization of cities with populations of 30,000 or more. There are 1,139 such cities in the country today, each represented in the Conference by its chief elected official, the Mayor.


From CBS News:

Census data : Half of U.S. poor or low income
December 15, 2011
WASHINGTON - Squeezed by rising living costs, a record number of Americans — nearly 1 in 2 — have fallen into poverty or are scraping by on earnings that classify them as low income. The latest census data* depict a middle class that's shrinking as unemployment stays high and the government's safety net frays. The new numbers follow years of stagnating wages for the middle class that have hurt millions of workers and families.
(...) Mayors in 29 cities say more than 1 in 4 people needing emergency food assistance did not receive it. Many middle-class Americans are dropping below the low-income threshold — roughly $45,000 for a family of four — because of pay cuts, a forced reduction of work hours or a spouse losing a job. Housing and child-care costs are consuming up to half of a family's income. (...) A survey of 29 cities conducted by the U.S. Conference of Mayors being released Thursday points to a gloomy outlook for those on the lower end of the income scale.

* "Latest Census data" refers to the release of the following report by the Census Bureau:
Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010
NOTE : This link will take you further down on the page you're now reading
, where you'll find a link to the report itself, along with a collection of ~50 links to related fact sheets, NGO analysis of the report, media coverage, historical tables and much more

Related links from CBS News:

* New data shows poverty at an all-time high (Video, duration 2:33)
(Undated, likely September 2011)

* Poverty in America: The faces behind the figures
September 19, 2011

* Poverty continues to rise in U.S., now 15.1%
September 13, 2011

* Most U.S. unemployed no longer receive benefits
November 5, 2011
CBS News

Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Participation Rates: 2002 – 2009

Summary (PDF - 63K, 2 pages) [dead link]
Complete report (PDF - 6.3MB, 131 pages) [dead link]
August 2011
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) [formerly known as the Food Stamp program] helps low-income individuals purchase food so that they can obtain a nutritious diet. One important measure of program performance is the ability to reach its target population, as indicated by the percentage of people eligible for benefits who actually participate. This report is the latest in a series on SNAP participation rates. Estimates are based on the March 2010 Current Population Survey and program administrative data for Fiscal Year (FY) 2009. The findings represent national participation rates for FY 2009.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
We help put healthy food on the table for over 40 million people each month.
[ Office of Research and Analysis ]
[ Food and Nutrition Service ]
[ U.S. Department of Agriculture ]
NOTE : Click any of the source links above to browse related research reports and more...

Related link:

More Americans Hungry For Food Stamps
By Marilyn Geewax
About 46 million people get government help in the form of food stamps when buying food. That's roughly 15 percent of the population.
This week, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is expected to release its latest update on the food stamp program [see the link above]. It's an important indicator of the nation's economic health — and the prognosis is not good. Food stamp use is up 70 percent over the past four years and that trend is expected to continue.

The spike began in late-2008 and early-2009 when the worst of the recession was triggering massive layoffs and home foreclosures. Although the economy has been growing since mid-2009, the pace has been too slow to absorb the nearly 14 million people without jobs. Nearly half of those have been out of work more than six months.

As a result, the number of people seeking federal help with groceries has been soaring. At this time four years ago, before the recession hit, about 27 million people were using food stamps. Today 46 million get help through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program — what most people call food stamps — which is roughly 15 percent of the population.
National Public Radio (NPR)
A thriving media organization at the forefront of digital innovation, NPR creates and distributes award-winning news, information, and music programming to a network of 900 independent stations. Through them, NPR programming reaches 26.8 million listeners every week.

From the
U.S. Census Bureau:

The 2012 Statistical Abstract
The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.
Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web. Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

Click the link above to scan the latest (2012) Statistical Abstract Table of contents and download the individual sections in PDF format.
Move your cursor over the list of sections in the left-hand margin to see the content of each of those sections.

Overview of the 2012 Statistical Abstract

Selected contents:

Banking, Finance, & Insurance
Births, Deaths, Marriages, & Divorces, Family Planning, Abortions, Life Expectancy
Business Enterprise
Economic Indicators
Construction & Housing (Homeownership and Housing Costs, Housing Sales, Housing Units and Characteristics
Education (All Levels of Education)
Federal Gov’t Finances & Employment
Health & Nutrition
Income, Expenditures, Poverty, & Wealth
Consumer Expenditures
Family Income
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Household Income
Income and Poverty--State and Local Data
Income for Persons
Personal Income
Information & Communications
International Statistics
Vital Statistics, Health, Education

Labor Force, Employment, & Earnings
Work Stoppages and Unions
Law Enforcement, Courts, & Prisons
Correctional Facilities, Prisoners
Crimes and Crime Rates
Criminal Justice Expenditures
Criminal Victimizations
Juvenile Delinquency, Child Abuse
National Security & Veterans Affairs
Consumer Price Indexes, Cost of Living Index
Social Insurance & Human Services
Child Support, Head Start, Child Care
Employee Benefits, Government Transfer Payments, Social Assistance
Food Programs
Philanthropy, Nonprofit Organizations, Volunteering
Social Security, Retirement Plans
Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
Unemployment, Disability, Workers’ Compensation
State & Local Gov’t Finances & Employment
Federal Aid to State and Local Governments
State Government Finances
State and Local Government Finances
U.S. Postal Service
Urban Transit


The U.S. Census Bureau is terminating the collection of data for the Statistical Compendia program effective October 1, 2011.

The Statistical Compendium program is comprised of the Statistical Abstract of the United States and its supplemental products - - the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book and the County and City Data Book. In preparation for the Fiscal Year 2012 (FY 2012) budget, the Census Bureau did a comprehensive review of a number of programs and had to make difficult proposals to terminate and reduce a number of existing programs in order to acquire funds for higher priority programs. The decision to propose the elimination of this program was not made lightly. To access the most current data, please refer to the organizations cited in the source notes for each table of the Statistical Abstract.

Earlier editions of the Statistical Abstract - right back to 1878

Related link:

Don’t kill America’s databook
By Robert J. Samuelson
August 21, 2011
If you want to know something about America, there are few better places to start than the “Statistical Abstract of the United States.” Published annually by the Census Bureau, the Stat Abstract assembles about 1,400 tables describing our national condition. (...) The Stat Abstract is headed for the chopping block. The 2012 edition, scheduled for publication later this year, will be the last, unless someone saves it. (...) It can be argued that much of what’s in the Stat Abstract is online somewhere. True — but irrelevant. Many government and private databases are hard to access and search, even if you know what you want. Often, you don’t. The Stat Abstract has two great virtues. First, it conveniently presents in one place a huge amount of information from a vast array of government and private sources. (...) Second, the footnotes show where to get more information. (...) Without the Stat Abstract, statistics will become more hidden, and our collective knowledge will suffer. Must this be? If Census doesn’t rescind its misguided death sentence, the agency could contract with some wealthy private foundation to support the abstract.
Washington Post


- Go to the Census 2011 questionnaire links page:

The United States Social Security Administration

(Click the link above to select one of the online services below)
* Get or replace a Social Security card
* Apply for retirement benefits
* Apply for disability benefits
* Apply for Medicare
* Apply for other benefits
* Estimate your retirement benefits
* Get extra help with Medicare prescription drug costs
* Learn what you can do online
* Check the status of your application
* Services for people currently receiving benefits
* Request a Social Security Statement
* Get a form
* Get a publication
* Appeal a disability decision
* Services for the homeless, representative payees,
governments, financial planners, human resource professionals & third parties
* Research popular baby names
* Find a Social Security office

Social Security Publications

* Introduction to the Social Security Program Social Security Number
* Disability Benefits Work and Earnings
* Retirement Benefits Subjects of Special Interest
* Survivors Benefits Other Information
* Medicare Spanish Language Publications
* Extra Help with Medicare
* Prescription Drug Plan Costs Information In Other Languages
* Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI)

From the
White House:

Women in America:
Indicators of Social and Economic Well-Being
(PDF - 2MB, 97 pages)
Prepared by
U. S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
Executive Office of the President
Office of Management and Budget
March 2011
This report provides a statistical picture of women in America in five critical areas: demographic and family changes, education, employment, health, and crime and violence. By presenting a quantitative snapshot of the well-being of American women based on Federal data, the report greatly enhances our understanding both of how far American women have come and the areas where there is still work to be done.
[Excerpt from the Foreword]

Related links:

February 28, 2011
Presidential Proclamation--Women's History Month, 2011
During Women's History Month, we reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of women and honor their role in shaping the course of our Nation's history. Today, women have reached heights their mothers and grandmothers might only have imagined. Women now comprise nearly half of our workforce and the majority of students in our colleges and universities. They scale the skies as astronauts, expand our economy as entrepreneurs and business leaders, and serve our country at the highest levels of government and our Armed Forces. In honor of the pioneering women who came before us, and in recognition of those who will come after us, this month, we recommit to erasing the remaining inequities facing women in our day.

Women's History Month (U.S. Government website)

White House marks Women's History Month with 50-year progress report
Women's History Month began Tuesday, and the White House released the
'first comprehensive federal report on the status of women' since 1963
March 1, 2011
By Daniel B. Wood
Young women in America are more likely than men to have a college degree, and women’s earnings constitute a growing share of household income, but their wages still lag significantly behind those of men with comparable education, according to a report on the status of women released Tuesday by the White House. The White House released the report, which it called the “first comprehensive federal report on the status of women in almost 50 years,” on the first day of Women’s History Month.

NOTE : This article includes links to:
* Gallery: Real-life wonder women
* Gallery: Top 10 countries where women make less than men
* Gallery: Top 10 countries where women's pay comes closest to men's pay
* Surprise! Women started more firms than men.
* Big winners right now in the job market: older white women
* Homelessness besets more women. How to respond?
Christian Science Monitor


- Go to the Links to International Sites about Women's Social Issues page:

President Obama's Weekly Address:
Health Reform Starts to Kick In
(4.5-minute video)
May 8, 2010
The President goes through the benefits in health insurance reform that are already kicking in for young adults, retirees, and families, and says more benefits coming down the pike.
The White House Blog
[ The White House ]


From the Los Angeles Times:

Unemployment benefits expire as Congress debates extension
Lawmakers are likely to take up the issue when they return from spring break next week. The sticking point is how to pay for an extension.
By Clement Tan
April 6, 2010
As unemployment benefits expired Monday for tens of thousands of jobless workers, Democrats and Republicans renewed their haggling over whether to vote for an extension when Congress returns from its spring break next week. At the heart of the dispute is whether the extension should be offset by spending cuts, as Republicans are demanding, or whether it constitutes an emergency, as Democrats say. The expiration means 212,000 unemployed people will lose benefits this week, according to figures provided by the National Employment Law Project.

A federal balancing act
Congress won't resolve the federal deficit problem by arguing over emergency spending programs aimed at spurring the economy. The real problems are far larger.
April 18, 2010
Call it Congress' version of "lather, rinse, repeat."
Last week, lawmakers approved a short-term extension of unemployment benefits after overcoming yet another GOP filibuster, the third such extension since December. The extension lasts only until early June, so Congress may soon be going through the same routine again. Republicans object to borrowing money to finance the extra benefits, while Democrats refuse to offset the additional spending by cutting other parts of the budget

Los Angeles Times


Related links:

Unemployment Insurance - from the U.S. Department of Labor

Unemployment benefits - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Links to Information about
Unemployment Insurance
programs in each state in the U.S.

- from America's Service Locator


National Employment Law Project
The National Employment Law Project (NELP) responds (to worker insecurity and inequality) by working to restore the promise of economic opportunity in the 21st century economy. (...) We partner with strong advocacy networks, grounded in the full range of stakeholders - grassroots groups and national organizations, worker centers and unions, policymakers and think tanks.

NELP Issues: Unemployment Insurance
In an increasingly volatile economy, working families need a strong unemployment insurance program - one that is there in hard times to help them pay the bills and find new jobs that meet their needs and aspirations. However, the unemployment insurance safety net has failed to keep pace with the changing labor force, especially the growth in women, part-time and low-wage workers. In response, policymakers in over half the states have adopted significant reforms in recent years to modernize their unemployment insurance (UI) programs.

Unemployed Workers Home
A special project of the National Employment Law Project

United States Census 2010 - Home Page
Census Day was April 1 in the U.S. - the day when all Americans were counted by the Census Bureau.
The last day to return completed Census 2010 questionnaires was April 16.

[ 2010 United States Census - from Wikipedia ]


April 19, 2010

The new Supplemental Poverty Measure (the SPM, described below) was described in the April 18/10 issue of the Canadian Social Research Newsletter as an intrinsic part of the 2010 U.S. Census.

This was incorrect.
The SPM is distinct from the 2010 Census.

Read the words of the kind anonymous contributor
who set the record straight in an email earlier today:

"The U.S. Census Bureau’s new Supplemental Poverty Measure is completely separate from the U.S. 2010 Decennial Census. The 2010 Decennial Census (unlike earlier Decennial Censuses) does not contain any questions about income, so it cannot be used to measure poverty. The income data used to measure poverty according to both the current official poverty measure and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure will be taken from the Current Population Survey (and presumably also the American Community Survey); these surveys are separate from the Decennial Census."

[Thank you for this correction,
kind anonymous contributor...]

Census to Redefine Poverty
By Ron Haskins, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
Doug Nelson , CEO, Annie E. Casey Foundations
March 12, 2010
With so many policy debates mired in partisan politics, the announcement last week by the U.S. Census Bureau that it plans to develop a supplemental poverty measure and then open it to public scrutiny is something both Republicans and Democrats can agree on.
Brookings Institution


Observations from the
Interagency Technical Working Group
on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure
(PDF - 138K, 8 pages)
March 2010
(...)The Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) would not replace the official poverty measure. The Working Group has designed it as an experimental measure that defines thresholds and resources in a manner different from the official poverty measure. The SPM should be considered a work in progress, with the expectation that there will be improvements to it over time. (...) The official statistical poverty measure, as defined in OMB Statistical Policy Directive No. 14, will continue to be produced and updated every year. This is the statistical measure that is released annually in the fall and is sometimes identified in legislation regarding program eligibility and funding distribution.
Poverty resources page
[ U.S. Census Bureau]


Half in Ten: From Poverty to Prosperity
The Campaign to Cut Poverty in Half in Ten Years

More than thirty-seven million Americans live below the official poverty line (which is now $21,203 for a family of four), and more than 13.3 million children are poor in this country. Inequality has reached record highs – it is greater than at any time since 1929. (...)





U.S. Government Sites The U.S. Government's Official Web Portal

The White House - "Government Made Easy"
- incl. links to : * Agency Index * Federal Government * State Government * Local Government * Tribal Governments
Government Information by Topic :

* Benefits and Grants * Consumer Guides * Defense and International * Environment, Energy, and Agriculture * Family, Home, and Community * Health and Nutrition * History, Arts, and Culture * Jobs and Education
* Money and Taxes * Public Safety and Law * Reference and General Government * Science and Technology * Travel and Recreation * Voting and Elections

Senior Citizens' Resources -
- incl. links to : * Consumer Protection for Seniors * Education, Jobs, and Volunteerism for Seniors * End-of-Life Issues * Federal and State Agencies for Seniors * Health for Seniors * Housing for Seniors * Laws and Regulations Concerning Seniors * Money and Taxes for Seniors * Retirement * Travel and Recreation for Seniors

Government Benefits, Grants and Financial Aid
Official information and services from the U.S. government - Your Benefits Connection
"...a partnership of Federal agencies with a shared vision - to provide improved, personalized access to government assistance programs."
[A Partner is a Federal, State or Local government organization that makes benefit program information available to the public on the website. - from About
", which is part of President Bush's E-gov initiative, serves as a one-stop comprehensive web clearinghouse for information about federal grant opportunities and grant application materials." (formerly is the federal government website for comprehensive information on disability programs and services in communities nationwide. The site links to more than 14,000 resources from federal, state and local government agencies; academic institutions; and nonprofit organizations

Information by Topic:
(On home page)
* Benefits * Civil Rights * Community Life * Education * Emergency Preparedness * Employment * Health * Housing * Technology * Transportation

Earlier editions of the State of the Union
From The White House:

State of the Union (SOTU) Address
January 28, 2014
Watch the complete 2014 State of the Union Address online (just over an hour in duration).

Obama's 2014 State of the Union address: Full text (transcript)
(NOTE : This is from the CBS News website --- I can't seem to find the actual transcript of the Address on the White House website...)

SOTU Issues

* Family :
* Poverty :
* Seniors and Social Security :
* Health Care :
* Immigration
* Education
* Economy
* Energy and the Environment
* More...

SOTU Highlights
This is a cheat-sheet that members of Congress received before the SOTU Address.

The White House


Related Links:

From CBS News:

Obama's 2014 State of the Union wish list
January 29, 2014
(...) Here’s a breakdown of what the president wants to do in 2014, and whether he’ll need Congress to do it:

Obama's planned executive orders:
(going it alone, without support of Congress)
--- Minimum wage
--- Retirement savings
--- Family policies
--- Job training
--- Unemployment
--- Environment
--- Universal pre-K

Where he'll need Congress' help:
--- Immigration
--- Extending emergency unemployment benefits
--- Earned Income Tax Credit
--- Tax Reform
--- Minimum Wage
--- Manufacturing
--- Trade
--- Environment
--- Investment in universal pre-K
--- Guantanamo Bay

Five State of the Union Takeaways
Ultimately, Mr. Obama seemed ready to cede the lofty calls for change he made in years past for a more realistic vision of continued, incremental progress.
The five takeaways:
* 2014 themes throughout
* Extending an olive branch
* Recycled ideas
* A limited scope focused on incremental change
* Less emphasis on certain thorny issues

CBS News Coverage of the State of the Union


State of the Union Address

February 12, 2013
Remarks by the President in the State of the Union Address
[ Selected excerpts on early childhood education and the federal minimum wage ]
Tonight, thanks to the grit and determination of the American people, there is much progress to report. After a decade of grinding war, our brave men and women in uniform are coming home. After years of grueling recession, our businesses have created over six million new jobs. We buy more American cars than we have in five years, and less foreign oil than we have in 20. Our housing market is healing, our stock market is rebounding, and consumers, patients, and homeowners enjoy stronger protections than ever before.
Study after study shows that the sooner a child begins learning, the better he or she does down the road. But today, fewer than 3 in 10 four year-olds are enrolled in a high-quality preschool program. Most middle-class parents can’t afford a few hundred bucks a week for a private preschool. And for poor kids who need help the most, this lack of access to preschool education can shadow them for the rest of their lives. So tonight, I propose working with states to make high-quality preschool available to every single child in America. That's something we should be able to do. Every dollar we invest in high-quality early childhood education can save more than seven dollars later on -- by boosting graduation rates, reducing teen pregnancy, even reducing violent crime.
We know our economy is stronger when we reward an honest day’s work with honest wages. But today, a full-time worker making the minimum wage earns $14,500 a year. Even with the tax relief we put in place, a family with two kids that earns the minimum wage still lives below the poverty line. That’s wrong. That’s why, since the last time this Congress raised the minimum wage, 19 states have chosen to bump theirs even higher. Tonight, let’s declare that in the wealthiest nation on Earth, no one who works full-time should have to live in poverty, and raise the federal minimum wage to $9.00 an hour. We should be able to get that done.
This single step would raise the incomes of millions of working families. It could mean the difference between groceries or the food bank; rent or eviction; scraping by or finally getting ahead. For businesses across the country, it would mean customers with more money in their pockets. And a whole lot of folks out there would probably need less help from government. In fact, working folks shouldn’t have to wait year after year for the minimum wage to go up while CEO pay has never been higher. So here’s an idea that Governor Romney and I actually agreed on last year -- let’s tie the minimum wage to the cost of living, so that it finally becomes a wage you can live on.

The White House

Related links:

Why Does the Minimum Wage Have
No Discernible Effect on Employment?
(PDF - 556K, 30 pages)
John Schmitt
February 2013
The employment effect of the minimum wage is one of the most studied topics in all of economics. This report examines the most recent wave of this research – roughly since 2000 – to determine the best current estimates of the impact of increases in the minimum wage on the employment prospects of low-wage workers. The weight of that evidence points to little or no employment response to modest increases in the minimum wage.

Center for Economic and Policy Research


Raise That Wage
By Paul Krugman
February 17, 2013
President Obama laid out a number of good ideas in his State of the Union address. Unfortunately, almost all of them would require spending money — and given Republican control of the House of Representatives, it’s hard to imagine that happening. One major proposal, however, wouldn’t involve budget outlays: the president’s call for a rise in the minimum wage from $7.25 an hour to $9, with subsequent increases in line with inflation. The question we need to ask is: Would this be good policy? And the answer, perhaps surprisingly, is a clear yes.

More columns by, and information about, Paul Krugman:

New York Times:


From the
U.S. Department of Agriculture

The Food Assistance Landscape, March 2005
Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report
"Expenditures for USDA's 15 food assistance programs totaled $46 billion from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004, marking the second consecutive year in which spending exceeded the previous record high. The fiscal 2004 spending level represented a 10-percent increase from the previous fiscal year, the fourth consecutive year in which total food assistance expenditures increased. Five programs—the Food Stamp Program, the National School Lunch Program, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the School Breakfast Program, and the Child and Adult Care Food Program—accounted for 94 percent of USDA's total expenditures for food assistance."

Complete report:

The Food Assistance Landscape, March 2005 (PDF file - 247K, 6 pages)

Related Links:

Food & Nutrition Assistance Programs
Food Security in the United States (ERS Briefing Room)

Economic Research Service (ERS)
[ U.S. Department of Agriculture ]


Modernization of Food Stamp Program Almost Complete
June 2004
Food Stamp Program Goes Electronic [dead link]
Food-Bank Comment Causes Furor
NPR: Commentary: Food Stamps and Medicare
USDA: Food Stamp Program [dead link]
The WIC Program: Background, Trends, and Issues
A Guide to Food Stamp Program Outreach [dead link]

"Started in 1939, the food stamp program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture is one of the entitlement programs designated to provide a safety net for Americans. The program enjoys some of the greatest bipartisan support and continues to be immensely successful. Earlier this week, the Department of Agriculture announced that the paper stamps which have been issued under the program for over six decades will be completely phased out later this month and replaced by a plastic card that operates in the same fashion as a bank debit card. As part of this transformation of the program, the Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman has commented that the Agriculture Department will be asking for suggestions for a new name for the food stamp program, a move that may also reduce some of the stigma that has been associated with this extremely valuable initiative in the past. Currently only six counties in California and the U.S. territory of Guam still use the paper food stamps. The usually staid Department of Agriculture has also been in the news as of late due to a comment made by a senior official in that government office who noted in an interview that people who eat at food banks are "taking the easy way out." Several elected officials from the state of Ohio took great exception to his comment, remarking in a letter sent to his office that "You have displayed a disparaging attitude toward the victims of hunger and an astonishing lack of awareness of what is happening beyond the Beltway." [KMG]

The first link leads to a news piece from the Washington Post that discusses the modernization of the delivery system for food stamps in detail. The second link will take visitors to a news brief from MSNBC that provides a summary of the debate surrounding the recent comment made by a senior official at the Department of Agriculture regarding the use of food banks. The third link leads to a 3-minute audio feature from NPR on the continuing popularity of food stamp programs across the United States, reported by the venerable Daniel Schorr. The fourth link leads to the official United States Department of Agriculture website about the food stamp program, complete with eligibility details and research reports on the effectiveness of the program. The fifth link leads to an October 2002 report on the continued success of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (known colloquially as WIC), which "safeguards the health of low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutrition risk." The last and final link leads to a site that provides some fine information on the various food stamp benefit program outreach activities that are intended to provide information on eligibility and benefits, with the primary goal of increasing the participation rate amongst those eligible parties."
Review by The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2003.

The poverty issue in the U.S. 2008 presidential election:

Obama puts poor back on agenda [dead link]
Social policy expert John Stapleton believes new federal tax programs for working-age adults may one day be as important as today's pensions and child tax benefits.
New U.S. leader has vowed to cut poverty. Now it's time to see what Canada can do.
November 8, 2008
Laurie Monsebraaten
As part of his compelling "Yes We Can" campaign to make meaningful change in the lives of average Americans, President-elect Barack Obama promised to cut poverty in half within a decade.
The Toronto Star

Obama victory sparks celebration, praise around globe
November 5, 2008
World leaders offered praise and citizens celebrated around the globe over the election of Barack Obama as U.S. president. From politicians to casual observers, many noted the historical significance of the American electorate voting Tuesday for the first black president.
CBC News : America Votes 2008 [dead link]
Results and analysis, includes an interactive map of the states that allows you to move your mouse over any state for detailed results

Related links:

Barack Obama's Innovative War On Poverty
October 13, 2008
Huffington Post

From OBAMA '08:

Obama and Biden’s Plan for America
(PDF - 483K, 43 pages)
(The section on poverty reduction starts on page 55.)

Barack Obama on Poverty
(from his Election 2008 website)
* Barack Obama will expand access to jobs:
Obama and Biden will invest $1 billion over five years in transitional jobs and career pathway programs that implement proven methods of helping low-income Americans succeed in the workforce.
* Make work pay for all Americans:
Obama and Biden will increase benefits for working parents, raise the minimum wage to $9.50 an hour by 2011, and provide tax relief to low- and middle-income workers.
* Support rural and urban areas:
Obama and Biden will invest in rural small businesses, improve rural schools, and attract more doctors to rural areas. And they will work with urban leaders to increase the supply of affordable housing and address the unique challenges of every metropolitan area.
Election 2008 Issues ===> also includes Disabilities - Women's Issues - Seniors & Social Security [dead link] - Health Care [dead link] - more...
[ Barack Obama 2008 website ]

Barack Obama and Joe Biden:
Fighting Poverty and Creating a Bridge to the Middle Class
(PDF - 58K, 8 pages)
[PDF file dated 9/11/08]
* Expand Transitional Jobs and Career Pathways Programs * Ensure Freedom to Unionize * Help Youth Connect with Growing Job Sectors * Improve Transportation Access to Jobs * Increase Access to Capital in Underserved Communities * Create a National Network of Public-Private Business Incubators * Promote Digital Inclusion * Reduce Crime Recidivism by Providing Ex-Offender Supports
* Expand the Earned Income Tax Credit * Raise the Minimum Wage * Provide a Tax Cut for Working Families * Eliminate Income Taxes for Seniors Making Less Than $50,000
* Promote Responsible Fatherhood * Support Parents with Young Children * Expand Paid Sick Days
* Expand Early Childhood Education * Place High-Quality Teachers in Low-Income Classrooms * Extend Summer School Opportunities to Low-Income Students * Reduce the High School Dropout Rate * Make College More Affordable
* Increase the Supply of Affordable Housing * Create a New Mortgage Interest Tax Credit for Those Who Don’t Itemize * Combat Mortgage Fraud and Predatory Subprime Loans * Close the Bankruptcy Loophole for Mortgage Companies * Fully Fund the Community Development Block Grant
* Lower Health Costs and Increase Access * Fight Health Disparities * Foster Healthy Communities
* Create a White House Office on Urban Policy * Ensure Community-Based Investment Resources in Every Urban Community * Establish ‘Promise Neighborhoods’ for Areas of Concentrated Poverty ADDRESS RURAL POVERTY
* Build Roads, Airports, and Infrastructure * Reinvest in Rural Technology Resources * Encourage Investment in Rural America

Barack Obama's Plan to Fight Poverty in America (PDF - 64K, 8 pages)
File dated April 20, 2008


The 2008 Presidential Election
and the Half in Ten Anti-poverty Strategy

Edwards Poverty Campaign Met With Media Blackout
Posted May 15, 2008
On Tuesday, the day before he announced his support for Barack Obama, former Senator John Edwards launched a campaign to cut the nation's poverty rate in half in the next ten years. You can be excused if you hadn't heard about it. Only one major daily newspaper -- the Philadelphia Inquirer -- covered the event, which took place at a Baptist church in North Philadelphia.
The Half in Ten campaign will focus on policy solutions identified in the Center for American Progress' poverty task force report issued last year. These include expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit; raising both state and federal minimum wages; increasing the number of low-income families receiving child care assistance; increasing eligibility for unemployment insurance; and preventing predatory lending practices and preserving home ownership. The last time the U.S. committed itself to dramatically tackling poverty was during the early 1960s.
Huffington Post
[NOTE : recommended reading --- includes a good snapshot of the poverty situation in the U.S., along with an historical overview of poverty and poverty reduction from President Johnson's War on Poverty (mid-60s) to date, and links to related information]

Related links:

Edwards backs Obama [dead link]
By Chuck Babbington, Associated Press
May 14, 2008
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. — Democrat John Edwards endorsed former rival Barack Obama on Wednesday, a move designed to help solidify support for the party's likely presidential nominee even as Hillary Rodham Clinton refuses to give up her long-shot candidacy. (...)He said Mr. Obama “stands with me” in a fight to cut poverty in half within 10 years. (bolding added)
The Globe and Mail

NOTE: for more on antipoverty strategies in Canda, the U.S. and elsewhere in the world,
go to the Anti-poverty Strategies and Campaigns page:


America Votes '08 - U.S. election campaign coverage
- from the Toronto Star


THOMAS Legislative Information on the Internet
THE site for US legislative information, congressional records and House and Senate Committee information. 
Includes links to the following : Bill Summary & Status - Bill Text - Major Legislation: - Public Laws - Roll Call Votes: House, Senate - Congressional Record Text - Congressional Record Index - Résumés of Congressional Activity - Days In Session Calendars - Committee Reports - Committee Home Pages: House or Senate - House Committees: Schedules and  Oversight Plans - Hearing Transcripts - Committee Jurisdictions - Senate Committees: Hearings Schedule

U.S. Government Manual
"As the official handbook of the Federal Government, the United States Government Manual provides comprehensive information on the agencies of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. It also includes information on quasi-official agencies, international organizations in which the United States participates, and boards, commissions, and committees."
- includes links to previous editions back to 1995-96

CIA: The World Factbook
The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 266 world entities. Our Reference tab includes: maps of the major world regions, as well as Flags of the World, a Physical Map of the World, a Political Map of the World, and a Standard Time Zones of the World map.

The World Factbook : Canada
- incl. entries under the following headings:
* Geography * People * Government * Economy * Communications * Transportation - Military * Transnational Issues
NOTE: the World Factbook contains similar
information for 266 world entities (select countries on the home page)

Central Intelligence Agency

Related link:

The World Factbook - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From the Committee on Ways and Means of the
United States House of Representatives:

The Green Book - 2014 edition
Published by the Committee on Ways and Means of the United States House of Representatives, The Green Book provides background material and data on the programs within the jursidiction of the Committee on Ways and Means.

2014 Green Book
[Click the link above to access any of the chapters below.]
Chapter 1: Social Security
Chapter 2: Medicare
Chapter 3: Supplemental Security Income
Chapter 4: Unemployment Insurance
Chapter 5: Railroad Benefits
Chapter 6: Trade Adjustment Assistance
Chapter 7: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
Chapter 8: Child Support Enforcement
Chapter 9: Child Care
Chapter 10: Social Services Block Grant
Chapter 11: Child Welfare
Chapter 12: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
Appendix A: Federal Benefits and Services for People with Low Income
Appendix B: Social Welfare Programs in the Territories
Appendix C: Federal Benefits for Noncitizens

- includes links to eight earlier editions of The Green Book going back to 1996

If you're looking for information that will allow for comparisons between the provisions of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (pre-1996) and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (post-1996), look no further than The Green Book.

Additional Resources : Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Links

Online Services for Key Low-Income Benefit Programs
Revised March 25, 2016
What States Provide Online With Respect to SNAP, TANF, Child Care Assistance, Medicaid, CHIP, and General Assistance


Committee on Ways and Means
of the United States Congress

Welfare Dependence in America


1. "Welfare dependence" is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program (formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program); the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program."
Source: Twelfth Report to Congress, page x
[ ]

2. In Canada, the federal government contributes towards the cost of provincial/territorial welfare programs under the Canada Social Transfer.
In the U.S., the federal government contributes towards the cost of state programs providing time-limited financial assistance to families with children* under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program.

[ Keep scrolling down this page for the latest Canadian government report tabled in Parliament about welfare in Canada. ]
* I used the expression "time-limited financial assistance to families with children" in the above blurb because state programs under TANF are NOT comparable to Canadian social assistance programs on a number of levels.
If you plan to compare Canadian and U.S. stats, please take some time to check out the list of caveats entitled Welfare in Canada vs the U.S.:

Welfare in America - Reports to Congress

Indicators of Welfare Dependence, Thirteenth Report to Congress (PDF- 2MB, 165 Pages)
October 17, 2014
The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 specifies that the annual welfare indicators reports shall include analyses of families and individuals receiving assistance under three means-tested benefit programs:

1. The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program authorized under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in 1996);

2. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program under the Food Stamp Act of 1977, as amended (which was renamed from the Food Stamp Program by Section 4001(b) of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (P.L. 110-234) in October 2008;

3. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program under title XVI of the Social Security Act.

This chapter includes information on these three programs, derived primarily from administrative data reported by state and federal agencies instead of the national survey data presented in previous chapters. National caseloads and expenditure trend information on each of the three programs is included, as well as state-by-state trend tables and information on the characteristics of program participants.

Appendix A : Program Data

TIP : See Appendix A of the report for 48 pages of program info and stats on these three programs (TANF - SNAP - SSI)

Indicators of Welfare Dependence, Annual Report to Congress (report main page)
The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to study the most useful statistics for tracking and predicting dependence on three means-tested cash and nutritional assistance programs: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Food Stamps, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

- Indicators of Dependence include : Degree of Dependence - Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment - Rates of Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance - Rates of Participation in Means-Tested Assistance Programs - Multiple Program Receipt - Dependence Transitions - Program Spell Duration - Welfare Spell Duration with No Labor Force Attachment - Long-Term AFDC/TANF Receipt - Events Associated with the Beginning and Ending of Program Spells

- includes longitudinal and current caseload and expenditure data for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Food Stamp Program and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). In addition, you'll find dozens of tables and charts showing predictors and risk factors associated with welfare receipt, such as : Poverty Rates - Deep Poverty Rates - Experimental Poverty Measures - Poverty Spells - Child Support - Food Insecurity - Lack of Health Insurance - Labor Force Attachment - Employment among the Low-Skilled - Earnings of Low-Skilled Workers - Educational Attainment - High School Dropout Rates - Adult Alcohol and Substance Abuse - Adult and Child Disability - Births to Unmarried Women/Teens - much more...

Earlier annual reports - back to 1997

Human Services Policy (HSP)
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation ASPE)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Complementary report from HHS:

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) :
Tenth Report to Congress

December 12, 2013
Executive Summary
In 1996, Congress created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. This $16.5 billion a year block grant was enacted under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and other related welfare programs. Fostering self-sufficiency through work was a major goal of the 1996 reform, which required States and Territories to meet minimum levels of participation in work or work-related activities

This report describes the characteristics and financial circumstances of TANF recipients and presents information regarding TANF caseloads and expenditures, work participation and earnings, State High Performance Bonus awards, child support collections, two-parent family formation and maintenance activities, out-of-wedlock births, child poverty, characteristics and financial circumstances of TANF recipients, Tribal TANF and specific Provisions of State Programs.

Complete report:

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) :
Ninth Annual Report to Congress
(PDF - 1.3MB, 173 pages)
June 1, 2012
[Excerpt] TANF caseloads declined slightly throughout FY 2007 and continued to decline from the official start of the recession in December 2007 through July 2008. TANF caseloads then began to rise. From the low in July 2008 through September 2009, close to 199,000 families were added to the TANF rolls, representing an increase of 12 percent.
Child-only cases continued to comprise a large fraction of the total TANF caseload. These are cases where no adult is included in the benefit calculation and only the children are aided. In FY 2009, child-only cases represented 48.1 percent of the total TANF caseload.

Appendix (PDF - 2.7MB, 421 pages)
June 2012
- includes detailed information and tables on the following aspects of welfare for able-bodied families with children in America :
Caseload - Expenditures and Balances - Work Participation Rates - Work and Earnings - High Performance Bonus - Child Support Collections - Formation and Maintenance of Married Two-Parent Families - Out-of-Wedlock Births - Child Poverty and TANF - Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of TANF Recipients - Tribal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and Native Employment Works - Specific Provisions of State Programs - TANF Research and Evaluation - State Profiles

Administration for Children and Families
[ Department of Health and Human Services ]



Under the Canada Assistance Plan ("CAP", 1966-1996), the federal Department of Health and Welfare was required by law to table, in the House of Commons, an annual report on the operation of welfare programs and social services in Canada, in the same manner as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services presents annual reports on welfare dependence to Congress.

Annual Report of the Canada Assistance Plan for the Year Ending March 31, 1968:

In April 1996, a block fund called the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) replaced CAP's 50-50 cost-sharing as the statutory mechanism for determining federal contributions to provincial/territorial welfare programs. [ See A History of the Health and Social Transfers] Neither the CHST nor its successor, the Canada Social Transfer (since April 2004), contains rules regarding the production of reports about welfare for tabling and discussion in the Parliament of Canada. In fact, the last national public report about welfare in Canada that was tabled and discussed in the House of Commons was the final CAP Annual Report for 1995-96. In my view, that's not much accountability for a program of this magnitude. The CST will cost the Canadian taxpayer almost $11 billion in 2009-10 in cash transfers alone, all without any debate or even discussion in the House of Commons.

Because the CST is a block fund, and because it covers post-secondary education, early learning and childcare as well as welfare and social services, it's no longer possible to calculate how much each province and territory receives annually from Ottawa specifically earmarked for welfare. That's why you won't see any Canadian equivalent to Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress in the near future. That, and the fact that there doesn't appear to be any political will by the ruling federal party to support provincial-territorial programs of last resort at this time.

Related reading from Finance Canada:

Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories - updated January 2009
...everything you ever wanted to know about federal transfers.
(or what the Department of Finance wants you to know about federal transfers)

General Accounting Office
"The General Accounting Office is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress. GAO exists to support the Congress in meeting its Constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance and ensure the accountability of the federal government for the American people."

Supports for Low Income Families
States Serve a Broad Range of Families through a Complex and Changing System
Report to the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate
January 2004
Highlights (PDF file - 69K, 1 page)
Complete report (PDF file - 577K, 80 pages)
"(...) States have used TANF funds to experiment with new support programs and have recognized that supports like subsidized child care are an increasingly important support for low-income working families. Most recently, states have faced fiscal crises and tough choices about reducing their supports for low-income families. The emphasis on moving people into work, though, remains a priority. As states continue to adjust supports for low-income families in efforts to move forward with the reforms of the last decade and improve efficiency, access, and coordination, they will also continue to face the pressures of competing priorities and fiscal constraints."
[p. 39, [Concluding Observations]
General Accounting Office

Department of Health and Human Services
- incl. links to content organized under the following headings:
Diseases & Conditions - Safety & Wellness - Drug & Food Information - Disasters & Emergencies - Grants & Funding - Reference Collections - Families & Children - Aging - Specific Populations - Resource Locators -
Policies & Regulations - About HHS

Office of Family Assistance (OFA)
"The Office of Family Assistance (OFA) is located in the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and oversees the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program which was created by the Welfare Reform Law of 1996. TANF became effective July 1, 1997, and replaced what was then commonly known as welfare: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) programs. TANF provides assistance and work opportunities to needy families by granting states the federal funds and wide flexibility to develop and implement their own welfare programs."

Administration for Children and Families
"ACF is a federal agency funding state, local, and tribal organizations to provide family assistance (welfare), child support, child care, Head Start, child welfare, and other programs relating to children and families. Actual services are provided by state, county, city and tribal governments, and public and private local agencies. ACF assists these organizations through funding, policy direction, and information services."

Welfare Caseloads

HHS again touts decline in welfare caseload despite rent increases in poverty
October 7, 2004
“The decline in the number of families being helped by TANF, despite the increase in the number of families living in poverty in recent years, suggests that steps need to be taken to reduce barriers that keep needy families from benefiting from the benefits and services the TANF program can provide.”
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP)

Related Link:

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) Response to Health and Human Services Announcement that Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Caseloads Fell in 2003
Trend Touted by HHS but Should Be Cause for Concern
"The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced today that caseloads in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program fell in 2003. In the press release announcing the decline, Secretary Tommy Thompson said that "American families are improving their lives by leaving public assistance and entering the workforce." Last year, shortly after the Census Bureau released data showing a marked rise in child poverty in the United States in 2002, HHS issued a similar press released that trumpeted TANF caseload declines in 2002 and called them 'encouraging.' Just as last year’s release failed to note that child poverty increased in 2002, this year’s release fails to note that the proportion of single mothers who are employed fell in 2003 and the unemployment rate rose markedly among single mothers."

For additional information on employment for single mothers in 2003 and the decline in TANF participation by families who are poor enough to qualify, see the Center’s paper:
Employment Rates For Single Mothers Fell Substantially During Recent Period Of Labor Market Weakness (June 2004)

View Related CBPP Reports on Welfare Reform and TANF

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP)

College as a Job Advancement Strategy: An Interim Report on the New Visions Self-Sufficiency and Lifelong Learning Project
The New Visions Evaluation
(PDF file - 599K, 21 pages)
May 2003

Report Shows Effects of Education on Employment of Welfare Recipients (dead link)
Press Release
November 5, 2003
"The Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services today announced the results of an interim report on the first two years of a demonstration to improve the job prospects of welfare recipients who are already working 20 hours per week by offering them specially-designed education courses in a community college setting. (...) The demonstration project, called New Visions, is a joint effort between Riverside Community College (RCC) in Riverside, California and the California Department of Public Social Services. (...) 'The interim findings of this study show that it is possible to get working TANF recipients involved in community college, with the eventual goal of full-time work,'said Wade F. Horn, Ph.D., assistant secretary for children and families. (...) Abt Associates is conducting the evaluation. The final report, to be published in 2004, will focus on the long term effects of this program on increasing the earnings of recipients already in the work force.
Complete report:

Administration for Children and Families
[Department of Health and Human Services]

The U.S. Health Care Reform Initiative

Health Care Reform - from The White House
Building on a year's work from the House and the Senate, the final health reform legislation that the President signed into law included the best ideas from both sides of the aisle offered in the course of the debate.
[ "Learn what health reform means for you." ]

The latest news:

Obamacare’s real danger for the GOP is that it will succeed
By Eugene Robinson
September 23, 2013
To understand the crisis in Washington [ ], tune out the histrionics and look at the big picture: Republicans are threatening to shut down the federal government — and perhaps even refuse to let the Treasury pay its creditors — in a desperate, last-ditch attempt to keep millions of Americans from getting health insurance.
The GOP has tried its best to make Obamacare a synonym for bogeyman and convince people that it’s coming in the night to snatch the children. In fact, and I know this comes as a shock to some, Obamacare is not a mythical creature. It is a law, incorporating what were originally Republican ideas, that will make it possible for up to 30 million people now lacking health insurance to obtain it.

Officially, the law in question is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Republicans intended the term “Obamacare” to be mocking, which is perhaps why President Obama started using it with pride.

Washington Post

Implementing Obamacare
Obamacare, the biggest change in the nation’s health-care system in decades, is upon us.
September 20, 2013
With the health-insurance marketplaces scheduled to open for enrollment Oct. 1, millions of Americans, and officials at all levels of government, are trying to figure out what the sweeping Affordable Care Act means for them.
On Jan. 1, the law goes into full effect.

NOTE : The link above is from the Washington Post's Politics Blog, where you'll find links to hundreds of Washington Post articles on Obamacare going back several years.

How states approached healthcare reform
July 3, 2013
[The recent] announcement that businesses employing fewer than 50 employees have until 2015 to offer workers health insurance under the Affordable Care Act marks another hurdle in the law, which 26 states challenged in court. This blog posting shows how the states have sided on some of the key provisions.

Washington Post

July 13, 2012
Affordable Care Act and Medicaid
Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)
[ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]

Supreme Court Health Care: Obama Wins The Battle, Prepares For The War
June 28, 2012
WASHINGTON -- Three years after Democrats began crafting health care reform, nearly 18 months after the president signed it into law, and eight months since the Supreme Court agreed to hear a challenge to its constitutionality, proponents of the Affordable Care Act can finally exhale. The law is constitutional, the court ruled in a Thursday session that supplied all the nervous anticipation of an actual election.

But while the law's mandate may pass legal muster, it remains unpopular. And as part of the decision to uphold the law, Chief Justice John Roberts may have made it even more toxic, determining that it was a tax. Policy experts said they remain concerned about components of the legislation, including looming cuts in Medicare payments to hospitals and other providers, while Democrats have exhibited general wariness with championing it on the campaign stump.

Democrats won today's battle, but the war over health care remains unsettled.

Huffington Post

President Obama's Weekly Address:
Health Reform Starts to Kick In
(4.5-minute video)
May 8, 2010
The President goes through the benefits in health insurance reform that are already kicking in for young adults, retirees, and families, and says more benefits coming down the pike.
The White House Blog
[ The White House ]

March 22, 2010
This is What Change Looks Like
After a historic vote in the House to send health reform to the President, he speaks to all Americans on the change they will finally see as they are given back control over their own health care.

March 22, 2010
Reform Begins
White House Communications Director Dan Pfeiffer lays out some of the immediate benefits of health reform.

Historic U.S. health-care bill passes
March 22, 2010
The U.S. House of Representatives passed a historic health-care bill late Sunday that will make coverage possible for more than 30 million uninsured Americans and end discrimination by insurance companies against people with existing medical conditions. Legislators voted 219 to 212 in favour of the landmark legislation that has been debated on Capitol Hill for a year.
NOTE: see 1000+ story comments!

Health Care 2010
Tracking the national debate on health care system overhaul
The Washington Post

From Democracy NOW!:

Michael Moore: Healthcare Bill “A Victory for Capitalism” (video)
March 23, 2010
“The healthcare bill that was passed ultimately will be seen as a victory for capitalism,” Moore says. “It protected the capitalist model of providing healthcare for people—in other words, we are not to help unless there is money to be made from it."

In Historic Vote, House Approves Landmark Healthcare Reform Bill (video)
March 22, 2010
In a historic vote, the House has approved an overhaul of the nation’s healthcare system that expands coverage to more than 30 million uninsured Americans while forcing millions to purchase private health insurance. We play remarks by President Obama, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and House Minority Leader John Boehner.

Democracy NOW!
Democracy Now! is a national, daily, independent, award-winning news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez. (...) Democracy Now!’s War and Peace Report provides our audience with access to people and perspectives rarely heard in the U.S.corporate-sponsored media, including independent and international journalists, ordinary people from around the world who are directly affected by U.S. foreign policy, grassroots leaders and peace activists, artists, academics and independent analysts


Democrats expect U.S. health reform to pass on Sunday
By Sheldon Alberts
March 21, 2010
WASHINGTON - Energized and exuding confidence after a weekend pep talk from President Barack Obama, Democratic leaders in the U.S. House of Representatives claimed they'll have the votes to pass landmark legislation on Sunday to overhaul the American health-care system. (...) The prediction of victory - which only a few days ago seemed very much in doubt - followed a whirlwind 72 hours of backroom negotiating, cajoling and political arm-twisting that swayed holdout Democrats who had withheld their support out of skepticism about flaws in the $940-billion legislation.
Montreal Gazette

Health Reform Package Represents Historic Chance to Expand Coverage, Improve Insurance Markets, Slow Cost Growth, and Reduce Deficits
By Sarah Lueck, January Angeles, Paul N. Van de Water, Edwin Park, and Judith Solomon
March 19, 2010
“The health reform legislation now before Congress represents a historic opportunity to make significant progress in three critical areas:
* expanding the availability and affordability of health coverage,
* instituting much-needed improvements to the flawed health insurance marketplace, and
* taking steps to slow the relentless growth in health care costs.

“Not only would this legislation produce the greatest gains in health coverage since the enactment of Medicare and Medicaid 45 years ago and provide stability and security for tens of millions of Americans who now have health insurance, its costs are also fully offset and would reduce budget deficits by $138 billion over ten years, according to the Congressional Budget Office.”

View the full report:
(PDF - 6 pages)

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is one of the nation’s premier policy organizations working at the federal and state levels on fiscal policy and public programs that affect low- and moderate-income families and individuals.The Center conducts research and analysis to help shape public debates over proposed budget and tax policies and to help ensure that policymakers consider the needs of low-income families and individuals in these debates. We also develop policy options to alleviate poverty.

Context and background information:

Health Care Costs Around the World (Info-graphic)
(Reuters) - "The United States spends more on health care than any other country in the world but has higher rates of infant mortality, diabetes and other ills than many other developed countries."
(...not to mention the 46 million + Americans who had NO health insurance coverage whatsoever in 2008, according to the latest available figures. Gilles)

Comparison of Canadian and American health care systems
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Government and private health and public policy analysts have compared the health care systems of Canada and the United States. The U.S. spends much more on health care than Canada, both on a per-capita basis and as a percentage of GDP. In 2006, per-capita spending for health care in the U.S. was US$6,714; in Canada, US$3,678. The U.S. spent 15.3% of GDP on health care in that year; Canada spent 10.0%. In 2006, 70% of health care spending in Canada was financed by government, versus 46% in the United States. Total government spending per capita in the U.S. on health care was 23% higher than Canadian government spending, and U.S. government expenditure on health care was just under 83% of total Canadian spending (public and private).
1. Click "External Links" on the Wikipedia page for comparisons of several aspects of health insurance in Canada and the U.S. (e.g. insurance coverage, wait times)
2. Click "References"on the Wikipedia page for a collection of links to dozens and dozens of free online resources.


Health care reform in the United States
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* Costs * Uninsured * Comparisons with other health care systems * History of reform efforts * Health reform and the 2008 presidential election * Barriers to reform * Public policy debate (Common arguments for and against a national health care system - Other arguments for publicly funded health care - Other arguments against publicly funded health care) * Current reform proposals (Obama administration proposals - Congressional proposals) * States * Public opinion * Prescription drug prices * See also * References * Further reading * External link

From The White House:

Health Care:
The President's Plan

In an address to a joint session of Congress in September 2009, President Obama explained how health insurance reform will provide more security and stability to those who have health insurance, coverage for those who don’t, and will lower the cost of health care for our families, our businesses, and our government.
* Read the full transcript of the President's remarks.
* Watch the full video of the President's remarks.
* Read the full plan for health insurance reform.
* Download a concise, printable version.

Health Insurance Reform
Reality Check

"Whether or not you have health insurance right now, the reforms we seek will bring stability and security that you don't have today. This isn't about politics. This is about people's lives . This is about people's businesses. This is about our future." [President Barack Obama]
- incl. links to short (3 min.) videos to debunk the disinformation
that's being heard in some town hall meetings on the following topics:
* Reform will eliminate insurance discrimination against the disabled
* The return of the viral email
* Reform will stop "rationing" - not increase it
* The "euthanasia" distortion on help for families
* Vets' health care is safe and sound
* Reform will benefit small business - not burden it
* Your Medicare is safe, and stronger with reform
* You can keep your own insurance

President Obama on
Historic House Health Reform Vote
(four-minute video)
November 7, 2009

See also:
The White House Blog: Health Care

The White House


Health care media links:

NOTE: For the latest update on the American health care reform initiative, see:
Health-Care Reform 2009: Tracking the National Health-Care Debate
Source : Washington Post

From the
Washington Post

Deal on health bill is reached
By Shailagh Murray and Lori Montgomery
December 20, 2009
Senate Democrats said Saturday that they had closed ranks in support of legislation to overhaul the nation's health-care system, ending months of internal division and clearing a path for quick Senate passage of President Obama's top domestic policy priority.

House Democrats pass health-care bill
One Republican votes for plan; Senate will act next on legislation

By Lori Montgomery and Shailagh Murray
November 8, 2009
Hours after President Obama exhorted Democratic lawmakers to "answer the call of history," the House hit an unprecedented milestone on the path to health-care reform, approving a trillion-dollar package late Saturday that seeks to overhaul private insurance practices and guarantee comprehensive and affordable coverage to almost every American. After months of acrimonious partisanship, Democrats closed ranks on a 220-215 vote that included 39 defections, mostly from the party's conservative ranks. But the bill attracted a surprise Republican convert: Rep. Anh "Joseph" Cao of Louisiana, who represents the Democratic-leaning district of New Orleans and had been the target of a last-minute White House lobbying campaign. GOP House leaders had predicted their members would unanimously oppose the bill.

Related Washington Post links:
* Transcript: Obama delivers remarks prior to the House health-care vote
* Graphic : What happens next?
* What's in the House bill

Health-Care Reform 2009: Tracking
the National Health-Care Debate
<===Click this link for dozens of related articles.
Washington Post ]


From the
New York Times

Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House
By Carl Hulse and Robert PEar
November 7, 2009
WASHINGTON — Handing President Obama a hard-fought victory, the House narrowly approved a sweeping overhaul of the nation’s health care system on Saturday night, advancing legislation that Democrats said could stand as their defining social policy achievement. After a daylong clash with Republicans over what has been a Democratic goal for decades, lawmakers voted 220 to 215 to approve a plan that would cost $1.1 trillion over 10 years. Democrats said the legislation would provide overdue relief to Americans struggling to buy or hold on to health insurance.
- incl. links to several related articles
New York Times


Thousands From Canada And Europe Praise Their National Health Care On Global Message Board
By Matthew Palevksy
August 21, 2009
Yesterday, global online advocacy network attempted to inject a dose of reality into the heated debate over health care reform by launching an interactive database of user-submitted health care stories from Canada, the UK, and other countries with national health care systems. (...) Of the nearly five thousand comments made on the site in a recent 24-hour period, the vast majority express one of two things: gratitude towards their government for relieving the fear that comes with not having medical coverage, and dismay at the dishonest debate in the US. Criticism of national health care is all but missing.
Huffington Post


Does Canada's Health Care System Need Fixing?
by Sarah Varney
August 10, 2009
Amid the debate about reforming heath care in the United States, it's tough to turn on your television these days without hearing a political ad condemning the Canadian health care system. (...) In many ways, Canada is confronting some of the same problems as the U.S. — anxiety over how to pay for its aging baby boomers, a shortage of primary care doctors, and too many people who overuse hospital emergency departments. But what Canadians don't worry about is losing their health insurance or going bankrupt because of an injury or illness.
National Public Radio (NPR)


Is US Going Insane over Health Care?
Town halls 'gone wild' part of right's well-oiled fake freakout against reform.
August 10, 2009
Canadians might understandably despair over the state of U.S. political culture, seeing the wild claims and public tantrums there against Obama-supported reforms that would move the United States toward the kind of universal health care enjoyed in this country. But this report unveils how the far right is faking the freak-out. With U.S. federal lawmakers returning home last week to begin their month-long recess, the far right is welcoming them with large, angry throngs at "town halls gone wild."
The Tyee


Why Canadians should care about healthcare reform in the U.S. - podcast* (19-minute audio file)
By Lorraine Chisholm
August 8, 2009
Health policy researcher Colleen Fuller says the debate about reform has huge significance for Canadians in our efforts to strengthen Medicare. She outlines the various options being considered in the States and talks about the pressures that led Obama to abandon a single-payer healthcare system.
* NOTE: Click the Play button next to the speaker icon on the page to listen online, or click the "Download MP3" button
in the left-hand margin to save the file to your hard drive so you can transfer it to your iPod or other MP3 player for listening at your leisure.]
rabble podcast network
The rpn is a growing collection of Canadian podcasts (radio and video you can subscribe to) which offer an alternative take on politics, entertainment, society, stories, community and life in general.
[ ]

Democratic Underground

Canada, stop scaring the Americans!
Posted August 11, 2009
I have spent time in Canada and think the world of Canadians. However my experience has been a bit different than some who praise the health care system. (...) You see I never went to a Canadian hospital but I have a friend who suffered for over a year due to infected tonsils. A relatively simple thing here in the states yet it was dragged out for over a year in the Canadian system...
RantRave - "A place to rant and rave about everything that matters"

Health Experiences From Around The World
-- How Do Universal Health Care Systems Compare?

July 21, 2009
By Margo Irvin and Morgan Korn
Landmark health care legislation that would provide health insurance for all Americans is under intense scrutiny -- in particular, the "public option," which creates a government health insurance program that would compete with private insurers. Critics lambast the public option as "socialized medicine," warning that bureaucracy and government-mandated rationing would lead to interminable waits and dangerously substandard care. Americans are without health insurance, an anomaly when compared to their European and Asian counterparts. President Barack Obama had wanted a comprehensive bill on a new domestic health care system on his desk for signing by October, but acknowledging the fractious environment, extended his deadline to the end of the year. What the White House and Democrats are proposing does not resemble the health care systems in other countries -- seven of which are depicted in the slideshow that accompanies this article.

"(...) 45 million Americans are currently uninsured, including 9 million children, and estimates put the number of early deaths due to lack of health care at 18,000 a year. Despite the fact that Americans spend over twice as much per capita on health care as most other industrialized nations, the US falls behind those nations when it comes to preventable mortality. Yet, in an attempt to sway public opinion away from universal coverage, opponents point to worst-case scenarios in countries with government-run health care."

[TIP : if you click the above link, you'll see "Read More" immediately under the title of the article; select Huffington Post articles by theme (Canadian Health Care, Health Care, Health Care Bill, Health Care Debate, Obama Health Care, Slidepoll, Socialized Medicine, Universal Health Care, World News)
Huffington Post

A Canadian experience with Canadian health-care
July 16, 2009
Watching the debate in the US over health-care from a Canadian point of view, is probably another diary all together, but I would like to share a typical Canadian experience with our good but not-perfect health-care system. [First-hand account of the birth of the author's child in Ontario, including hospital procedures, tests, supports, costs, etc.]
- incl. links to related sites
Watching the Watchers

Michael Moore and National Health Care: Lies of the Left and the Right
Posted August 7, 2007
In Moore's film the first president Bush is seen dismissing the idea of socialized medicine, remarking that if you think it could work, "Ask a Canadian." The fact is that while many Canadians have criticisms of their health care system, almost none would choose a U.S.-style, for-profit system. They would laugh at the idea that it would work better for them.
Huffington Post (U.S.)

Related links:

SiCKO - the official movie website - includes "SiCKO Factual Backup"

SiCKO - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Medicaid Resource Book
This reference book describes four pivotal aspects of how the Medicaid program operates -- who it covers, what it covers, how it is financed, and how it is administered. It was written to assist the public and policymakers in understanding the structure and operation of the Medicaid program.
Table of Contents : * Medicaid Eligibility * Medicaid Benefits * Medicaid Financing * Medicaid Administration * Medicaid Glossary * Appendix 1: Medicaid Legislative History, 1965-2000 * Appendix 2: Index to Medicaid Statute * Appendix 3: Index to Medicaid Regulations * Appendix 4: Selected Resources from KCMU * Appendix 5: Selected Internet Medicaid Resources

Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and The Uninsured
[ Kaiser Family Foundation ]

Special : 10 years after welfare reform in the U.S.

. A decade of welfare reform : Facts and figures, (PDF file - 47K, 6 pages) from The Urban Institute, Washington, June (2006).

. Getting on, staying on and getting off welfare : The complexity of state-by-state policy choices (PDF file - 203K, 8 pages) G. Rowe and L. Giannarelli, The Urban Institute, Washington, July (2006).

. TANF at 10 : Program results are more mixed than often understood (PDF file - 244K, 16pages), S. Parrott and A. Sherman, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, August (2006).

. Ten years after welfare reform. It's time to make work work for families (PDF file - K, 2 pages), E. Ganzglass, Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, August (2006).

. Getting punched : The job and family clock : It's time for flexible work for workers of all wages, (PDF file - 159K, 32 pages) J. Levin-Epstein, Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, July (2006).

Council for Employment, Income and Social Cohesion - Paris
Conseil de l'emploi, des revenus et de la cohésion sociale - CERC[version française]

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
"The Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) is the principal advisor to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on policy development, and is responsible for major activities in the areas of policy coordination, legislation development, strategic planning, policy research and evaluation, and economic analysis."

The 2015 HHS Poverty Guidelines

The 2015 HHS Poverty Guidelines for the 48 contiguous states* and the District of Columbia are as follows:
# of Persons in Family --------- Poverty Guideline
1 ------------------------------------- $11,770
2 ------------------------------------- $15,930
3 ------------------------------------- $20,090
4 ------------------------------------- $24,250
5 ------------------------------------- $28,410
6 ------------------------------------- $32,570
7 ------------------------------------- $36,730
8 ------------------------------------- $40,890
For each additional person, add - $4,160

[ *The HHS Poverty Guidelines are higher in Alaska and Hawaii.
Click the link above to see guidelines for these two states.]


* Federal Register Notice, January 22, 2015— Full text

* Prior Poverty Guidelines and Federal Register References Since 1982

* Frequently Asked Questions Related to the Poverty Guidelines and Poverty

* Further Resources on Poverty Measurement, Poverty Lines, and Their History

* Computations for the 2015 Poverty Guidelines

Poverty Guidelines, Research, and Measurement


There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure: the poverty thresholds and the poverty guidelines.

The poverty thresholds are the original version of the federal poverty measure. They are updated each year by the Census Bureau (although they were originally developed by Mollie Orshansky of the Social Security Administration). The thresholds are used mainly for statistical purposes — for instance, preparing estimates of the number of Americans in poverty each year. (In other words, all official poverty population figures are calculated using the poverty thresholds, not the guidelines.)

The poverty guidelines are the other version of the federal poverty measure. They are issued each year in the Federal Register by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The guidelines are a simplification of the poverty thresholds for use for administrative purposes — for instance, determining financial eligibility for certain federal programs.

The poverty guidelines are sometimes loosely referred to as the “federal poverty level” (FPL), but that phrase is ambiguous and should be avoided, especially in situations (e.g., legislative or administrative) where precision is important.

Key differences between poverty thresholds and poverty guidelines are outlined in a table under Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).
See also the discussion of this topic on the Institute for Research on Poverty’s web site..

Office of Human Services Policy
[Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation ]
[ Department of Health and Human Services ]

There's an important distinction between the Canadian and American government poverty measurement --- in the U.S., a person's or household's eligibility for certain programs is actually tied to an official federal government poverty measure. (However, eligibility for state welfare programs that fall under the federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families umbrella is means-tested and not related to any poverty measure.) In Canada, eligibility for all provincial and territorial welfare programs for individuals and families is "needs-tested". Needs-testing and means-testing mean the same thing in this context --- they both involve a test that takes into account a household's financial resources and its needs.

Related Reading:
- highly recommended!

Further Resources on Poverty Measurement, Poverty Lines,
and Their History
Table of Contents:
- Introduction
- Background Paper on the Poverty Guidelines
- Programs That Do — and Don’t — Use the Poverty Guidelines
- The Official Federal Statistical Definition of Poverty
- Mollie Orshansky’s Development of the Poverty Thresholds
- Research on Alternative Approaches to Poverty Measurement
- Papers by ASPE Staff Relating to the History of Poverty Lines
- For Further Questions

The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds
By Gordon M. Fisher
Social Security Bulletin
Volume 55, Number 4

Previous HHS Poverty Guidelines
and Federal Register References
- back to 1996

Related link:

Poverty Thresholds (1973-2007 and selected earlier years back to 1959)
(from the U.S. Census Bureau)

Assets for Independence (AFI) Program [dead link]
- incl. links to:
* About AFI * Prospective Grantees * Current Grantees * Guidance, Policies, and Procedures * Publications and Reports *
Contact AFI * Frequently Asked Questions

The Assets for Independence (AFI) is a Federal program that provides grants to enable community-based nonprofits and State, local, and Tribal government agencies to implement and demonstrate an asset-based approach for offering low-income families help out of poverty. (...) Asset building is an anti-poverty strategy that helps low-income people move toward greater self-sufficiency by accumulating savings and purchasing long-term assets. The theory behind this approach is that helping people purchase an asset, as opposed to simply increasing their income, provides stability that may allow them to escape the cycle of poverty permanently. Examples of long-term assets include a home, higher education and training, and a business.

AFI Project Locator [dead link]
Individuals interested in building assets through participation in an AFI program can browse the Project Locator to find opportunities in their communities.

AFI - Eighth Annual Report to Congress PDF (897K, 90 pages) [dead link]
File dated June 2009
The Eighth Annual Report to Congress provides an update on the status of the Assets for Independence (AFI) program through the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2007. The program was established by the Assets for Independence Act in Title IV of the Community Opportunities, Accountability, and Training and Educational Services Act of 1998.
The FSA program allows participants to use FSA savings to purchase the three AFI allowable assets: homeownership, postsecondary education or training, and business capitalization. Authorized uses of funds also include home repair and car purchase, computer purchase, or day care (if the car, computer or day care is related to employment or education). Federal AFI funds may be used to match savings for any of these asset purchases.
Office of Community Services
[ Administration for Children and Families ]
[ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ]

Related links:
Go to the Asset-Based Social Policies Links page:

NOTE: For links to more info about poverty measures and poverty measurement in the U.S.,
go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page of this site:

U.S. Census Bureau

Census Bureau Poverty Page
- includes links to : * Poverty Home * Overview *What's new * Publications * Definitions * Poverty Thresholds * Poverty Data Sources * Current Poverty Data * Microdata Access * Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates * History of the Poverty Measure * Poverty Measurement Studies and Alternative Measures * Related Sites * FAQ

U.S. Census Bureau: History
While the U.S. Census Bureau has only been in existence since 1903, the first population census was taken in 1790, per the requirements stated in the United States Constitution. This rather engaging website traces the history of the census through statistics, historic photographs, and other documents. On the homepage, visitors can browse through the "This Month in Census History" feature and learn some quick facts in the "Did You Know?" section. Moving along, the "Census-Then & Now" area should not be missed. Here visitors can learn about past directors of the census (such as Thomas Jefferson), read up on relevant legislation, and even look over biographies of notable census alumni. Next up is the "Geography & Mapping" section which contains an overview of how the Census maps data, coupled with a few famous maps from censuses past. One item that shouldn't be missed is the "Centers of Population" map, which shows the mean center of the population of the United States following each census. The site is rounded out by a "Through The Decades" feature, which brings visitors up to speed with the various changes made for each census.
Review by:
The Scout Report
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2008.

U.S. Census Bureau: Economic Indicators
Policy wonks, planners, and those with a general penchant for statistics will thoroughly enjoy the U.S. Census Bureau's Economic Indicators homepage. For starters, the homepage alone would be a reason to visit, as it includes the most recent data on manufacturing and trade inventories in the U.S., along with retail and food service sales, international trade in goods and services, and data on new home sales. It's also worth mentioning that the information can be obtained and examined in different formats, and they also offer up historic indicators dating back to the 1950s and 1960s in many instances. Visitors to the site can also learn when the next data set will be released and they may also wish to read the program overview for each data set.


Census Bureau to Develop Supplemental Poverty Measure
New measurement will complement but not replace existing statistic
Press Release
March 2, 2010
WASHINGTON—The Commerce Department’s U.S. Census Bureau is preparing to develop a Supplemental Poverty Measure that will use the best new data and methodologies to obtain an improved understanding of the economic well-being of American families and of how federal policies affect those living in poverty. The initiative to create the new statistic is included in the President’s FY2011 budget proposal.
U.S. Department of Commerce
[The U.S. Census Bureau is a component of the U.S. Department of Commerce]

NOTE: For a large collection of links related to poverty measurement in the U.S.
and elsewhere in the world, go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page of this site:


Poverty Measurement Studies and Alternative Measures
- includes links to the 1976 Measure of Poverty report, the 1985 Williamsburg Conference and Technical Papers 51-58, the 1995 National Academy of Sciences report and related reports and papers, and the 2005 American Enterprise Institute seminar series

* Exploring the Use of the Views of the Public to Set
Income Poverty Thresholds and Adjust Them Over Time
(PDF - 387K, 77 pages)
By Denton R. Vaughan
February 2004 (updated from June 1993)
Beginning in 1946 (more than two decades before Dutch economists began developing “subjective” poverty measures), the Gallup Poll in the U.S. repeatedly asked the following question: “What is the smallest amount of money a family of four (husband, wife, and two children) needs each week to get along in this community?” (Similar questions have been asked in Gallup Polls in Canada and Australia.) This paper by Vaughan is the most up-to-date and thorough analysis of the results of this “get-along” question. The paper uses the U.S. Gallup “get-along” responses for the period 1947-1989 plus the response to a 1989 Gallup “poverty line” question to construct a “Gallup-based” poverty line series for a four-person family for the 1947-1989 period.

* Personal Assessments of Minimum Income and Expenses:
What Do They Tell Us about ‘Minimum Living’ Thresholds and Equivalence Scales?
(PDF - 1.1MB, 69 pages)
By Thesia I. Garner and Kathleen S. Short
July 2002
This and similar papers by Garner and Short are probably the most up-to-date work on “subjective” poverty measures now being done in the United States.

Poverty Thresholds (1973-2007 and selected earlier years back to 1959)

Links to Related Sites
Find other agencies or organizations which provide Poverty Measurement Research

- Poverty Measurement Working Papers
- incl. links to papers and reports organized under the following themes:
* Measuring Poverty - Background and Overview * Who are the Poor? Using Different Measures * Poverty Thresholds * Medical Care * Housing Costs * Work-related Expenses and Child Care * Taxes and Unit of Analysis * Other Approaches to Measuring Economic Well-being

History of the Poverty Measure
- links to the following papers:
* The Development of the Orshansky Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.S. Poverty Measure, by Gordon M. Fisher (1992)
* "Changes in the Definition of Poverty", from Characteristics of the Population Below the Poverty Level: 1980
* Office of Management and Budget Statistical Policy Directive 14 (1978) - establishing the official poverty measure for federal agencies to use in their statistical work.
* The Measure of Poverty (1976) A series of technical papers about poverty measurement performed for the Poverty Studies Task Force of the Federal Interagency Committee on Education.
* Family Food Plans and Food Costs (1962)

Related Link:

Census Bureau Income Page - incl. links to : * What's New * Income Main * Overview * Reports * Definitions * Guidance about the Sources * How Income Data is Collected * Micro Data Access * Related Topics * FAQ * Current and historical income data

Food Stamp/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Receipt
in the Past 12 Months for Households: 2008 American Community Survey
(PDF - 204K, 3 pages)
Issued September 2009
This report presents data on the food stamp/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) at the national and state levels based on the 2008 ACS.
On October 1, 2008, the federal Food Stamp Program was renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2007
Population Characteristics
(PDF - 967K, 21 pages)
Issued September 2009
Selected highlights:
• 68% of households in 2007 were family households, compared with 81 percent in 1970.
• The proportion of one-person households increased by 10 percentage points between 1970 and 2007, from 17 percent to 27 percent.
• Between 1970 and 2007, the average number of people per household declined from 3.1 to 2.6.
• Most family groups with children under 18 (67 percent) were maintained by married couples.

Poverty: 2007 and 2008
American Community Surveys
(PDF - 234K, 4 pages)
Issued September 2009
This report provides comparisons at the national and state levels for poverty during the 2007 to 2008 time period. This report is one of a series produced to highlight results from the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS), focusing on changes between the 2007 ACS and the 2008 ACS. The report series is designed to cover a variety of economic topics, such as poverty, occupation, home values, and labor force participation. This series provides information about the changing economic characteristics of the nation and states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The ACS also provides detailed estimates of demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics for congressional districts, counties, places, and other localities every year. A description of the ACS is provided in the text box “What Is the American Community Survey?”.

Median Household Income for States: 2007 and 2008
American Community Surveys
(PDF - 208K, 4 pages)
Issued September 2009
This report is one of a series produced to highlight results from the 2008 American Community Survey (ACS), focusing on changes between the 2007 ACS and the 2008 ACS. The report series is designed to cover a variety of economic topics, such as poverty, occupation, home values, and labor force participation. This series provides information about the changing economic characteristics of the nation and states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The ACS also provides detailed estimates of demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics for congressional districts, counties, places, and other localities every year. A description of the ACS is provided in the text box “What Is the American Community Survey?”
This report presents data on household income at the national and state levels based on the 2007 ACS and 2008 ACS.

Source of data for the four reports above:
American Community Survey (ACS)
The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey designed to provide communities a fresh look at how they are changing. It is a critical element in the Census Bureau's reengineered decennial census program. The ACS collects and produces population and housing information every year instead of every ten years.
[ U.S. Census Bureau ]


NOTE: For links to more info about poverty measures and poverty measurement in the U.S.,
go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page of this site:

From the U.S. Dept of Agriculture:

Food Security in the United States

Food Insecurity in Households With Children:
Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11
(PDF - 1MB, 59 pages)
By Alisha Coleman-Jensen, William McFall, and Mark Nord
May 2013
An estimated 79 percent of households with children were food secure throughout the year in 2011, meaning that all the household members had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives. This report examines the prevalence and severity of food insecurity in households with children by selected household characteristics.
Table of contents:
* Summary
* Introduction
* Food Security and Insecurity: Concepts and 2011 National Statistics
* Food-Insecure Households With Children: Severity of Food Insecurity
* Emerging Research on Children’s Knowledge of and Experiences With Food Insecurity
* Associations Between Children’s Health/Development and Food Insecurity
* Trends in Food Insecurity in Households With Children, 1999-2011
* Food Insecurity Among Children in Selected Subpopulations, Average 2010-11
* Food and Nutrition Assistance Program Participation and Children’s Food Insecurity, Average 2010-11
Food Insecurity in Households With Children, by State, 2003-11 Average
Conclusions ............................................................33
References .............................................................35
Appendix A: Previous Study Findings ......................................39
Appendix B: Incidence of Food Insecurity in Selected Subpopulations,
Average 2010-11

Report Summary (small PDF file)

Related Topics and Data

Economic Research Service
[ U.S. Dept of Agriculture ]

Related links:

America's economic pain brings hunger pangs
USDA report on access to food 'unsettling,' Obama says
By Amy Goldstein
November 17, 2009
The nation's economic crisis has catapulted the number of Americans who lack enough food to the highest level since the government has been keeping track, according to a new federal report, which shows that nearly 50 million people -- including almost one child in four -- struggled last year to get enough to eat.
At a time when rising poverty, widespread unemployment and other effects of the recession have been well documented, the report released Monday by the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides the government's first detailed portrait of the toll that the faltering economy has taken on Americans' access to food
Washington Post

Also found on
the USDA website:

A Comparison of Household Food Security in Canada and the United States
By Mark Nord and Heather Hopwood
December 2008
Report summary (HTML)
Complete report (PDF - 917K, 50 pages)
December 2008


From the
United States Census Bureau:

Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013
September 16, 2014
News Release
The U.S. Census Bureau announced today that in 2013, the poverty rate declined from the previous year for the first time since 2006, while there was no statistically significant change in either the number of people living in poverty or real median household income. In addition, the poverty rate for children under 18 declined from the previous year for the first time since 2000. The results for the nation were compiled from information collected in the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement [ ].

The nation’s official poverty rate in 2013 was 14.5 percent, down from 15.0 percent in 2012. The 45.3 million people living at or below the poverty line in 2013, for the third consecutive year, did not represent a statistically significant change from the previous year’s estimate. Median household income in the United States in 2013 was $51,939; the change in real terms from the 2012 median of $51,759 was not statistically significant. This is the second consecutive year that the annual change was not statistically significant, following two consecutive annual declines.

The percentage of people without health insurance coverage for the entire 2013 calendar year was 13.4 percent; this amounted to 42.0 million people.

These findings are contained in two reports (see links below):
* Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013,
* Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013.


Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013
Current Population Reports
(PDF - 1.7MB, 72 pages)
September 2014
Summary of findings:
• Real median household income in 2013 was not statistically different from the 2012 median income.
• The official poverty rate decreased between 2012 and 2013, while the number in poverty in 2013 was not statistically different from 2012.


Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2013
Poulation reports
(PDF - 1.1MB, 28 pages)
September 16, 2014
Health insurance is a means for financing a person’s health care expenses. While the majority of people have private health insurance coverage, primarily through an employer, many others obtain health insurance through programs offered by the government. Other individuals do not have health insurance at all. This report presents statistics on health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2014 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement [ ] and the 2013 American Community Survey ( Estimates from both surveys, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, reflect health insurance coverage during the year 2013.

Selected Highlights:
• In 2013, the percentage of people without health insurance coverage for the entire calendar year was 13.4 percent, or 42.0 million.
• The percentage of people with health insurance for all or part of 2013 was 86.6 percent.
• In 2013, the majority of individuals, 64.2 percent, were covered by private health insurance.

The largest single type of health insurance in 2013 was employment-based health insurance, which covered 53.9 percent of the population.

United States Census Bureau


From The White House:

Five Key points in Today's
Report from the Census Bureau:
September 16, 2014
1. The overall poverty rate declined to 14.5 percent in 2013 due to the largest one-year drop in child poverty since 1966.
2. Real median income for family households rose by $603 in 2013 but remains below pre-crisis levels.
3. While still too wide, the gender pay gap narrowed slightly in 2013, with the female-to-male earnings ratio climbing above 78 percent for the first time on record.
4. Children and the elderly were much more likely than non-elderly adults to have health insurance coverage in 2013, reflecting the contributions of public programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP).
5. The data released today by the Census Bureau cover the calendar year 2013, and so do not reflect the notable improvement in the labor market seen over the first eight months of 2014.

Source: The White House


From Huffington

2013 Census Data on Poverty, Income Tells a Story About Our Priorities
September 17, 2014
So where should we invest? In training for the knowledge economy, small scale manufacturing in cities and a "green" workforce that puts people in jobs while turning our country energy independent. Protect non-cash programs like SNAP and EITC, scale them up and model other interventions after them. Create public policies that build assets for non-stock holders, using mechanisms like matched savings, other tax credits and asset-based welfare.

Huffington Post



New Census Data Tell Us That Poverty Fell in 2013:
Children and Young Adults Still Face the Greatest Risks
September 16, 2014
According to 2013 Census data released today, the overall poverty rate fell by half a percentage point, to 14.5 percent. Poverty for children fell by nearly 2 percentage points. Yet children (especially young children) once again experienced the highest rates of poverty in the United States. Young adults were close behind. Four years after the Great Recession officially ended, nearly one in five children and young adults lived in poverty.
NOTE : Skip to the bottom of the article for links to 25+ related resources.

Also from CLASP:

2013 Poverty Data: A Glimpse of Good News for Children, But We Can Do Better
September 16, 2014
By Hannah Matthews
For the first time since 2000, the overall child poverty rate fell, according to U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey (CPS) data released today on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the year 2013. This is good news. The numbers indicate a return from the extraordinarily high child poverty rates experienced during the depths of the recession. But these decreases don’t diminish the unacceptably high number of children still living in poor families, particularly our youngest children and Black and Hispanic children

CLASP - Solutions that work for low-income people
Since 1969, CLASP has been a trusted resource, a creative architect for systems change, and one of the country's most effective voices for low income people.


From Poverty Dispatch:

September 16, 2014
Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013 (6 articles)
Poverty Dispatch (U.S.)


Note : for a similar extensive collection of links to this report for 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, go to:

Dynamics of economic well-being : Poverty 1996-1999 (PDF file - 75K, 12 pages)
July 2003
Current population reports, n° P70-91
"This report describes patterns of poverty using measures with different time horizons and provides a dynamic view of the duration of poverty spells and the frequency of transitions into and out of poverty. It further examines how poverty dynamics vary across demographic groups. Data for this analysis were collected in the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP),the latest completed panel of the SIPP, and reflect the dynamics of poverty from January 1996 to December 1999."
Source : U.S. Census Bureau


Latest US Economic Indicators - 14 indicators, including Household Income 2000 and Poverty 2000

Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS)
American FactFinder

The US Census has released the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS) data, the "most comprehensive and detailed data on American families in 64 cities across the country today." The C2SS is the largest survey the Census Bureau has ever conducted aside from the decenniel census. The data are drawn from a monthly sample of 2,000 households, chosen on a rotating basis from 58,000 households in 1,203 counties, as well as households in 36 ACS test counties. The data are available at the American FactFinder site (first discussed in the April 2, 1999 _Scout Report_), and operational information, narrative and tabular profiles for all summary levels and rankings at the state, county, and place levels also may be found at the C2SS site.
Reviewed by The Scout Report, (Nov. 30, 2001)
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001

Census 2000 Data Access and Use
This private company website presents US Census data and related material. Updated weekly, the Website focuses on news about Census data releases; descriptions of Census 2000 data products; linkage of Census 2000 data with data from other decennial programs, most notably the 1990 census and other federal statistical data; Census 2000 data access issues in other federal agencies; and methodological resources and information concerning Census data and use.
- Reviewed by the Scout Report for Social Sciences

The Changing Shape of the Nation's Income Distribution, 1947-98
Are the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer?
Issued June 2000
- click above for links to text, figures and tables

Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
- incl. links to:
- HUD news - Newsroom - Priorities - About HUD
- Homes (Buying - Owning - Selling - Renting - Homeless - Home improvements - HUD homes - Fair housing - FHA refunds - Foreclosure - Consumer info)
- Communities ( About communities - Volunteering - Organizing - Economic development
- Working with HUD (Grants - Programs - Contracts - Work online - HUD jobs - Complaints)
- Resources (Library - Handbooks/ forms - Common questions)
- Tools (Let's talk - Webcasts - Mailing lists)

Great collection of resources for homeless people and for those who want to help the homeless...

- incl. Housing - Food - Jobs/job training - Health care - Social Security benefits - Homeless veterans

- federal programs to help the homeless - incl. Housing - Food - Education - Health Care - Social Security - Jobs - Homeless Children

Homelessness Resources - from the HUD Library

The Third Annual Homeless Assessment
Report to Congress
(PDF - 2.1MB, 144 pages)
July 2008
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Office of Community Planning and Development

Earlier related reports - includes the first two homelessness reports and over a dozen related reports

Overview of HUD Homeless and Housing Programs

Homelessness Resource Exchange
[ U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ]


Related links from the July 31 Poverty Dispatch:
(Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)
[ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]

*Drop in homeless count seen as 'success story'
By Wendy Koch, USA Today
July 28, 2008

* U.S. reports drop in homeless population
By Rachel L. Swarns, New York Times
July 30, 2008

U.S. Federal Minimum Wage

Congress passes increase in the minimum wage
By Stephen Labaton, New York Times. May 25, 2007

Congress OKs raise for minimum-wage workers
By Jesse J. Holland (Associated Press), Chicago Tribune. May 25, 2007

A long-overdue raise for millions (Editorial)
Editorial, St. Petersburg Times. May 29, 2007

Poverty Dispatch

Related links:

Federal Minimum Wage Rates, 1955–2006
Expressed in 1996 Constant Dollars, the federal hourly minimum wage in the U.S. was $4.39 in 1955 and $4.04 in 2006.

Related Web/News/Blog links:

Google Search Results Links - always current results!
Using the following search terms (without the quote marks):
"U.S. Federal Minimum Wage "
Web search results page
News search results page
Blog Search Results page

A Profile of the Working Poor, 2003 (PDF file - 75K, 14 pages)
March 2005
Released April 4, 2005
"In 2003, 35.9 million people, 12.5 percent of the population, lived at or below the official poverty threshold—1.3 million more than in 2002. Although the Nation’s poor were primarily children and adults who were not in the labor force, 1 in every 5, or 7.4 million individuals, were classified as “working poor.” This level was about the same as in 2002. The working poor are those who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (working or looking for work), but whose incomes fell below the official poverty threshold. The working-poor rate—the ratio of the working poor to all individuals in the labor force for at least 27 weeks—was 5.3 percent, unchanged from the rate reported in 2002."
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
[ U.S. Department of Labor ]

Also from the Bureau of Statistics:

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2004
April 5, 2005
- incl. 10 tables with characteristics of minimum wage workers in 2004 ("Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2004 annual averages: 1. by selected characteristics 2. by census region and division 3. by State 4. by major occupation group 5. by major industry group 6. by educational attainment 7. by age and sex 8. by marital status, age, and sex 9. by usual hours worked per week 10. by sex (1979-2004 annual averages)

Bureau of Labor Statistics
(U.S. Department of Labor)
[The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the American equivalent to Statistics Canada]
Inflation & Consumer Spending - Consumer Price Index • Inflation Calculator • Contract Escalation • Producer Price Indexes • Import/Export Price Indexes • Consumer Expenditures • Price Index Research
Wages, Earnings, & Benefits - Wages by Area and Occupation • Earnings by Industry • Employee Benefits • Employment Costs • State and County Wages • National Compensation Data • Collective Bargaining
Productivity - Productivity and Costs • Multifactor Productivity • International Comparisons
Safety & Health - Injuries and Illnesses • Fatalities
International - Import/Export Price Indexes • Foreign Labor Statistics • International Technical Cooperation
Occupations - Occupational Outlook Handbook • Occupational Outlook Quarterly • Employment • Wages by Area and Occupation • Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities • Employment Projections • Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
Demographics - Demographic Characteristics of the Labor Force • Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment • Consumer Expenditures • Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities • Longitudinal Studies
Other Statistical Sites - FEDSTATS • Census Bureau • Bureau of Economic Analysis
BLS Information Offices

Employment & Unemployment - National Employment • National Unemployment Rate • State and Local Employment • State and Local Unemployment Rates • Mass Layoffs • Employment Projections • Job Openings and Labor Turnover • Employment by Occupation • Longitudinal Studies • State and County Employment • Time Use • Business Employment Dynamics • Employment Research
At a Glance Tables - U.S. Economy at a Glance • Regions, States, and Areas at a Glance • Industries at a Glance
Publications & Research Papers - Occupational Outlook Handbook • Monthly Labor Review Online • Compensation and Working Conditions Online • Occupational Outlook Quarterly • The Editor's Desk • Career Guide to Industries • Economic News Releases • Research Papers
Industries - Industries at a Glance • Employment, Hours, and Earnings • Occupations • Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities • Producer Price Indexes • Employment Costs • Productivity • NAICS
Business Costs - Producer Price Indexes • Employment Costs • Employee Benefits • Foreign Labor Costs • Import/Export Prices • Unit Labor Costs
Geography - State and Local Employment • State and Local Unemployment Rates • State and County Employment and Wages • Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment • Mass Layoffs • Consumer Price Index • Consumer Expenditures • Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities • Wages by Area and Occupation • Create Customized Maps (Unemployment Rates)
Kids' Page - Career Information for Kids

Also includes Latest Numbers : CPI - Unemployment Rate - Payroll Employment - Average Hourly Earnings - PPI - ECI - Productivity - U.S. Import Price Index


Related Links: go to the Social Statistics Links page:

House Adopts Higher Minimum Wage, $310 Billion in Tax Cuts
July 29, 2006
"The House voted to boost the minimum wage for the first time since 1997 in Republican-backed legislation that also cuts $310 billion in taxes, largely by reducing a levy on multimillion-dollar estates. The minimum wage increase, and the inclusion of $38 billion in tax cuts that many Democrats support, were described by some Republicans as a bid to attract votes for the estate tax legislation when it reaches the Senate, where it has been rejected twice in the last month."
(" Bloomberg is the leading global provider of data, news and analytics.")

NOTE: if passed by the U.S. Senate, the House measure would boost the federal minimum wage, now at $5.15 an hour, to $7.25 by June 1, 2009. Over 80% of the US population supports a minimum wage increase, according to a CBS News/New York Times poll.

Related Links:

From the the Economic Policy Institute (EPI):

Overtime Rights and Recent EPI work on Overtime Issues
"EPI’s analysis determined that if this proposal became law, more than 8 million workers would lose overtime protection. A subsequent analysis by EPI also concluded that the Department of Labor’s claim that 1.3 million low income workers would stand to gain overtime pay from their proposal is untrue."

Related Links:

Overtime law clarification is hard to figure
August 22, 2004
"Depending on who is doing the analysis, either an additional 1.3 million American workers will be eligible for overtime beginning tomorrow, or 6 million will be stripped of that right. The discrepancy surfaces in the interpretation of new wage and hour laws created by the federal Department of Labor that seek to clarify overtime rules written more than 50 years ago. So far, the bottom line is one of confusion."
San Diego Union-Tribune

A profile of the working poor, 2001 (PDF file - 330K, 20 pages)
June 2003
"In 2001, 32.9 million people, or 11.7 percent of the population, lived at or below the official poverty level. This was an increase of 1.3 million from 2000. Most of the poor were children, or adults who had not participated in the labor force during the year. However, about 6.8 million were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more during the year. These persons were classified as the working poor, and represented 4.9 percent of all persons who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more. The ranks of the working poor increased by 319,000 (0.2
percentage point) from the previous year."
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
[ U.S. Department of Labor
NOTE: the BLS is the American equivalent to Statistics Canada. This site contains myriad U.S. statistics covering a wide range of topics, including : Inflation & Consumer Spending - Wages, Earnings, & Benefits - Productivity - Safety & Health - International - Occupations - Demographics - and more...
(but nothing specific about poverty or welfare)


Household Food Security in the United States, 2002
October 2003
Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report
"Eighty-nine percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year 2002, meaning that they had access, at all times, to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households were food insecure at least some time during that year. The prevalence of food insecurity rose from 10.7 percent in 2001 to 11.1 percent in 2002, and the prevalence of food insecurity with hunger rose from 3.3 percent to 3.5 percent. This report is based on data from the December 2002 food security survey."
Summary of Study Findings (PDF file - 73K, 2 pages)
Table of contents + links to all chapters and appendices
Complete report (PDF file - 421K, 58 pages)

Economic Research Service

Related Links - see to the Canadian Social Research Links Food Banks and Hunger page

America's Promise - The Alliance for Youth
That's what America's Promise is all about - pulling together the might of America's companies, public service groups and children's service providers; their talents and their resources, to strengthen kids. Not just their minds and bodies, but their character as well. And it's working. It will work even better if you and your group join in. It's time to get involved. Join us. " General Colin L. Powell, USA (Ret) 

Mystifying Data: Can America's Promise Get Away with It?
July 1999 
From Energize, Inc. - "especially for leaders of volunteers"

Electronic Journals of the U.S. Department of State

"IIP publishes five electronic journals* (Economic Perspectives - U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda - U.S. Society & Values - Global Issues - Issues of Democracy), with a new journal in one of the series appearing each month."
- Links to the most recent four issues of each journal - titles include : Food Security and Safety (May 2002 - see link below) - Human Rights Education (March 2002) - Achieving Sustainable Development (April 2002) - The American Family - Addressing World Poverty (Revised March 2002) - Media & Ethics (April 2001) - etc.
Sample link :
Economic Perspectives - May 2002
Food Security and Safety

*[Earlier Issues of the Electronic Journals] - links to over 65 issues of the five journals mentioned above going back to 1996 - including the following titles : Accountability in Government (August 2000) - Toward Inclusion: Meeting the Needs of Persons with Disabilities in the U.S.(January 1999) - The United States: A Nation of Volunteers (September 1998) - Crafting a Global Trade Strategy: the U.S. and the WTO (February 2000) - Democratic Local Government (April 1999) - Free and Equal: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at 50 (October 1998) - Advocacy in America (June 1998) - The Nonprofit Sector: Partner in Civil Society (January 1998) - Social Responsibility in the United States (January 1997) - Free Trade and the Summit of the Americas (March 1998) - A Free Press (February 1997) - Foreign Investment and the MAI (April 1997) - Confronting Human Rights Violations (May 1996) - etc.

Source : Office of International Information Programs (IIP)
(formerly the Information Bureau of the United States Information Agency)

What's New - Government Resources on the Web - links to almost 600 resources added to the University of Michigan's Documents Center since January 2002
Source : University of Michigan Documents Center

Washington File
The Washington File provides United States Government official texts, policy statements and interpretive material, features, and byline articles prepared daily by the U.S Department of State, International Information Programs.
Source : U.S. Department of State

Social Security Administration Home Page - "The Official Web Site of the Social Security Administration" 

US Totalization Agreement with Canada*
Social Security Administration 

(Last revised January 2000) 

Canada-US reciprocal social security agreement 

*Includes brief descriptions of  the various types of Social Security benefits payable under the US and Canadian Social Security systems and briefly describes the eligibility requirements for each. Also includes links to more information from the US and Canada

Social Security Handbook- Your Basic Guide to the Social Security Programs

Social Security Online

"The Social Security Administration's Web site provides information about Retirement, Survivors and Disability Insurance Benefits, and Supplemental Security Income. The site also provides wage reporting information for employers.

Social Security Online’s new name and look reinforce the Agency’s commitment to providing everyone with choices in ways of conducting business with SSA. Social Security Online continues to offer a variety of online services that allow people to access information and conduct business with SSA from the convenience of their computers at any time.
Some examples are:
Benefits Planner – The online Benefits Planner contains a Retirement Planner, Disability Planner and Survivors Planner with valuable information about retirement, disability and survivors benefits and factors that can affect them.
Social Security eNews – eNews is an electronic newsletter available free to subscribers through SSA’s Internet site.
Benefit Eligibility Screening Tool (B.E.S.T.) – B.E.S.T. is a tool that anyone can use to find out if they may be eligible for benefits from any of the programs that SSA administers.
Business Services Online (BSO) – BSO consists of a suite of services to help companies to conduct business with SSA.
Social Security Online For Women – For Women provides basic Social Security program information on retirement, survivors, disability and SSI benefits pertinent to women.
Multilanguage Gateway – A site providing information online in 15 different languages, including useful information about Social Security programs and SSA’s interpreter service.
The Work Site – The site contains important information and support for disability beneficiaries, employers, service providers, advocates and others whose goal is to help those persons with disabilities work.
Seguro Social en Español – A comprehensive site providing valuable Social Security information and services all in Spanish.
The Kids Pages – Social Security’s Kids & Family site is designed specifically for young children, teens and their parents and teachers, providing interactive games and tools to help them learn about Social Security.
History Page – It would be hard to find in one location a more complete history of SSA and the programs it administers."

Social Security Programs Throughout the World: The Americas, 2005
Released March 2006

"These reports, which provide a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in more than 170 countries, summarize the five main social insurance programs in those countries: old-age, disability, and survivors; sickness and maternity; work injury; unemployment; and family allowances. They are published in four regional volumes (Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas), one every 6 months. Together, the reports provide important information for researchers and policymakers who are reviewing different ways of approaching social security challenges and adapting the systems to the evolving needs of individuals, households, and families."
- includes links to 36 Country Summaries from Antigua and Barbuda to Venezuela, showing the following info for each country:

* Types of social security programs * Types of mandatory systems for retirement income * Demographic and other statistics related to social security, 2005 * Contribution rates for social security programs, 2005
NOTE: scroll to the bottom of the title page for links to other reports in this series, either for other parts of the world or for earlier years.

Two country reports of particular interest for 2005, in HTML format:
- United States
NOTE: all of the country reports are also available in PDF format.

Office of Policy
[ Social Security Online - U.S. Government]

Social Security Programs Throughout the World: The Americas, 2003
(released March 2004)
"This publication provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 172 countries.
It summarizes the five main social insurance programs in those countries: old-age, disability, and survivors; sickness and maternity; work injury; unemployment; and family allowances. This report is now published in four regional volumes : Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas. The 1999 edition of this report (see the link below) contains all country reports in one volume.
- click the link above for links to reports for 35 countries throughout the Americas, from Antigua and Barbuda to Venezuela
Two country reports of particular interest:
United States

Other Editions of Social Security Programs Throughout the World
o Europe, 2002 (released September 2002)
o Asia and the Pacific, 2002 (released March 2003)
o Africa, 2003 (released September 2003)

Other Social Security Pages:

Administration on Aging (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services)
Public Agenda Online - excellent overview of all sides of the issue!
Social Security Network
National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Medicare

Economic Policy Institute
And the view from the social/fiscal conservatives:
Heritage Foundation
Social Security, Choice and Reform - a project of the Cato Institute

Social Security Online - Disability Programs
"Social Security has two programs that pay benefits to people with disabilities:
- Social Security Disability Insurance pays benefits to you and certain members of your family if you are "insured" meaning that you worked long enough and paid Social Security taxes;
- Supplemental Security Income pays benefits based on financial need."
Source : Social Security Online

Employment Support for People with Disabilities (U.S. Social Security Administration)
The mission of the Office of Employment Support Programs Mission is to promote the employment of Social Security beneficiaries with disabilities
- Designing policies that make work pay.
- Promoting research and program innovation.
- Educating the public about programs and services that facilitate entry into the workforce.
- Partnering with other public and private groups to remove employment barriers for people with disabilities."
Includes links to : Youth With Disabilities | Employers | Beneficiaries | Service Providers | Advocates | About Us | What's New | Questions & Help | Search | Events| Resources Toolkit | Ticket To Work
- Go to Social Security Online (Official Website of the Social Security Administration)

Nutrition Assistance Programs
- incl. links to : The Food Stamp Program - Child Nutrition - Team Nutrition - Women, Infants and Children Program / Farmers' Market - Food Distribution

Source : U.S. Dept. of agriculture Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services

Commission for Labor Cooperation (Washington)
"The Commission for Labor Cooperation is an international organization created under the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC). The NAALC is the first agreement, and the Commission is the first organization, linking labor rights and labor standards to an international trade agreement."

Income Security Programs for Workers in North America
A Reference Manual for Workers and Employers
"...summarizes the main income support programs for workers in the private sector under the laws of Canada, Mexico and the United States. The manual's objective is to provide
employees and employers with basic information regarding the main income security programs for workers provided in their respective countries."
- incl. info about : Temporary Income Support for Unemployed Workers - Injuries at Work and Job-related Illness - Maternity Leave and Sickness Unrelated to the Job - Wages and Salaries - Income Support Programs for Low-income Groups or Disabled Workers - Income Tax Credits and Other Tax Deductions
NOTE: don't bother looking here for a comparison of North American welfare systems --- Canadian social assistance and the National Child Benefit are described in section 5 ("Income Support Programs for Low-income Groups or Disabled Workers"), but Temporary Assistance for Families with Dependent Children (TANF), the U.S. welfare system is only mentioned in terms of eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid and the Mexican section covers only some emergency food and health programs.

Close to 150 links to Canadian, American and Mexican sites about the
North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation and the North American Free Trade Agreement
- links incl. NAALC Members [Labor Departments] - National Administrative Offices - Labor Legislation - Official Statistical Resources - Federal Government Resources - NAFTA Institutions - NAFTA Resources - Statistical Sources - Trade and Treaty Resources - Multilateral Organizations [Americas / International] - Non-Governmental Organizations - Research Centers and Institutes - Labor Relations Boards - Labor Federations - Employers' Associations

Falling TANF Caseloads Amidst Rising Poverty Should Be A Cause Of Concern,
Revised September 5, 2003,
"On September 3rd, HHS released a press release calling continued declines in the TANF cash assistance caseload "encouraging" while failing to mention that federal statistics issued the same day by the Census Bureau showed a marked increase in child poverty. This analysis describes recent research and data that strongly suggest that falling caseloads during a time of rising poverty should be a cause for concern. (...) at a time when poverty and unemployment have increased significantly, the continued decline in the number of families receiving assistance through TANF is more appropriately viewed with concern than celebration. "
Source: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

An Aging World: 2001 (PDF file - 3973K, 190 pages) - U.S.
November 2001
This new 190-page release from the Census Bureau and the National Institute of Aging (NIA) presents comparative data related to aging, including population and projected population internationally, life expectancy, retirement, health information, and social support. The report was, in part, inspired by a review from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) that argued for an international focus on aging as an aid to policymakers worldwide. The main body of the report is broken into eleven chapters, covering topics ranging from urban versus rural populations to marital status to income security. Appendices include detailed tables, references, an international comparison of urban versus rural definitions, and sources and limitations of the data.
Reviewed by : Scout Report
Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001
- Go to the National Institute of Aging (NIA)

Portals to the World
"Presented by the Library of Congress, Portals to the World is an electronic database containing selective links that provide information on the various nations and other areas of the world. Countries are arranged alphabetically and contain links sorted in areas such as General Resources, Government and Law, Literature and Culture, News and Current Events, Libraries, Business and Residential Directories, and much more. Although in a nascent stage, the site provides a vast amount of links for each listed country. When completed, the project intends to have all the nations of the world included on its Web page."
Reviewed by The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001.

Related Links :

Library of Congress
Large site - see the sitemap for an overview of the rich content here - hundreds of links!

Collections and Services
International Resources

Includes :
Gateways to the World - The Library's 21 reading rooms provide access to international collections.
Special International Guides - A variety of online products created by the Library of Congress.

See also:
Nations of the World
- from the Law Library of Congress

Employment Outcomes for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care - U.S.
(HTML - 30 printed pages)
March 2002
"Published by the University of Chicago’s Chapin Hall Center for Children, this research report provides data on employment outcomes of children who "aged out" of foster care --- exit foster care near or at their eighteenth birthday --- in California, Illinois, and South Carolina during the mid 1990s. The report discloses information on when these children begin to earn income, how long over a 13-quarter period they maintained income, and the amount of earned income received over this time period. These results are then compared to income earnings from foster children who were reunified with their parents prior to their eighteenth birthday, and earnings of low-income youth. According to the study, youth aging out of foster care earn significantly less than youth in any of the comparison groups both prior to and after their eighteenth birthday. Going beyond statistical analysis and comparisons, this report also gives background information on the foster care system, information on the 1999 Foster Care Independence Act, and more. The actual report contains seven sections and each section can be viewed individually."
Reviewed by The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001
Related Links:
Human Services Policy
[Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation]

U.S. Consumer Price Indexes Page
Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor

Library of Congress
Large site - see the sitemap for an overview of the rich content here - hundreds of links!

Collections and Services
International Resources

Includes :

Gateways to the World - The Library's 21 reading rooms provide access to international collections.
Special International Guides - A variety of online products created by the Library of Congress.
Portals to the World - Links to electronic resources selected by Library of Congress subject experts.

See also:
Nations of the World
- from the Law Library of Congress

President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
On May 2, President Bush announced establishment of a bipartisan, 16-member Commission "to study and report … specific recommendations to preserve Social Security for seniors while building wealth for younger Americans." (...) Public hearings began on June 11. An interim report, describing the challenges facing the Social Security system, will be followed by a final report this fall with specific reform recommendations.

An Evaluation: Wisconsin Works (W-2) Program
April 2001
Department of Workforce Development, State of Wisconsin
Complete report (PDF file - 756K, 221 pages)
Press release
Last week, the Legislative Audit Bureau of Wisconsin issued a 221-page report evaluating the success of the state's high profile welfare reform program, Wisconsin Works (a.k.a. W-2). The report finds that, despite the fact the state spent more money on the program in its first three years than in previous years on the old AFDC system, only a small minority have found jobs that pay more than poverty wages. The evaluation offers comprehensive data on the program's expenditures and effectiveness, both in terms of welfare caseloads, employment, and income of participants.
Reviewed by the Scout Report for Social Sciences

Nonmarital Childbearing in the United States, 1940-99
National Center for Health Statistics
Complete report (PDF file, 302K, 39 pages)
Press Release - October 18, 2000
On October 18, the National Center for Health Statistics released a new report tracking trends and patterns in nonmarital births. "Based on data from birth certificates reported to NCHS through the National Vital Statistics System, the report describes the level of unmarried childbearing over the past 60 years, by such characteristics as age, race, and ethnicity of the mother." In line with a plethora of social data coming out of Washington in the last year showing improvement in crime, teen pregnancy, test scores, and other longstanding social ills, the report tracks a 50-year rise in births to unmarried women that has leveled off in the last decade. Specifically, "after rising dramatically during the half century from 1940 to 1990, out-of-wedlock childbearing leveled off, or slowed its rate of increase, during the 1990's. Since 1994, the percent of births to unmarried women has remained stable at about 33 percent."
- Go to the National Center for Health Statistics NCHS website
- The NCHS is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Reviewed by the Scout Report for Social Sciences

The Effect of Work and Welfare on Living Conditions in Single Parent Households
Population Division
U. S. Bureau of the Census
August 2000
Recent changes to programs of income support for the poor have focused attention on how work requirements and incentives affect earnings and employment of welfare recipients. The predominant way of thinking of these issues, at least in broader political discourse, assumes that obtaining work or improving wages are desirable goals for welfare recipients and their families. However, recent research has begun to indicate that single parents and their families are not always better off in the labor force.
- Go to US Census Bureau website

State and County QuickFacts
US Census Bureau
This new handy reference resource from the US Census Bureau allows users to access frequently requested Census Bureau information at the national, state, and county level. The site is navigated via a pull-down menu or interactive map, both of which produce tables of facts about the people, businesses, and geography for that state compared to the country as a whole. Another pull-down menu (or map) leads to similar information on the county level (compared to the state as a whole). In addition, each page offers a link to more detailed information from the Census Bureau, such as income and poverty estimates, economic censuses, county business profiles, and government finances, among other offerings. Quick facts for the country as a whole can also be accessed from the main page. All in all, a useful resource for quick and basic census information.
Reviewed by the Scout Report for Social Sciences

State of the Cities (National Urban Policy Report) - U.S. - various years
State of the Cities Data System provides the latest data on 114 selected cities released as part of  State of the Cities report
Source : U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

USAID (US Agency for International Development)
USAID is an independent federal government agency that conducts foreign assistance and humanitarian aid to advance the political and economic interests of the United States. USAID is the principal US agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democratic reforms.
Gender Matters - The Gender Website of the US Agency for International Development

National Center for Education Statistics
"The primary federal entity for collecting and analysing data that are related to education in the United States and other nations"
See the NCES Site Map for an overview of this large site that is rich in content. Here's a sample...
Longitudinal Surveys :
- High School and Beyond
- National Ed Longitudinal Study, 1988
- National Longitudinal Study, HS Class of 72
- Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) Program
"The ECLS Program has both descriptive and analytic purposes.  The descriptive purposes are to provide national data on (1) children's status at birth and at various points thereafter; (2) children's transitions to nonparental care, early education programs, and school; and (3) children's experiences and growth through the fifth grade.  The analytic purpose of the program is to provide data to test hypotheses about the effects of a wide range of family, school, community, and individual variables on children's development, early learning, and early performance in school."

The Condition of Education, 2002
June 2002
"The 2002 edition of the Condition of Education report has recently been released by the US Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Produced annually, the report highlights significant educational developments and progress made within the past year. This year’s report is available in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) and contains 44 indicators in six main areas: enrollment trends and student characteristics; student achievement and the longer term, enduring effects of education; student effort and rates of progress among different population groups; the quality of elementary and secondary education; the context of post-secondary education; and societal support for learning. Additionally, this report also provides analysis on the environment, climate, student outcomes at private schools, and the enrollment and persistence of nontraditional undergraduates. For anyone interested in education and its future, the report can be viewed in its entirety or by individual sections."

Reviewed by The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2001
Related Links:
National Center for Education Statistics
U.S. Department of Education

US Administration on Aging
In order to serve a growing senior population, AoA envisions ensuring the continuation of a vibrant aging services network at State, Territory, local and Tribal levels through funding of lower-cost, non-medical services and supports that provide the means by which many more seniors can maintain their independence. The mission of AoA is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated and cost-effective system of home and community-based services that helps elderly individuals maintain their health and independence in their homes and communities.

Aging Statistics
From the Administration on Aging

Social Security Administration Home Page - "The Official Web Site of the Social Security Administration" 

US Totalization Agreement with Canada*
Social Security Administration 
(Last revised January 2000) 
Canada-US reciprocal social security agreement 
*Includes brief descriptions of  the various types of Social Security benefits payable under the US and Canadian Social Security systems and briefly describes the eligibility requirements for each. Also includes links to more information from the US and Canada

U.S. Census Bureau Poverty Statistics

Poverty in the United States: 1996
Poverty Measurement
Low Income Uninsured Children by State
Detailed Historical Tables from the Current Population Survey: 1959-1996
Poverty Thresholds
HHS Poverty Guidelines
Census Historical Poverty Tables: 1959-1989
Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates
Poverty Statistics

U.S. Welfare Caseloads Information - from the Administration for Children and Families
- incl. State by State Welfare Caseloads from 1993 to March 1999 (recipients and families) - Percentage of the US Population on Welfare By Year Since 1960 - Recipients and Families 1936-1999 - Caseload Comparison since the signing of the Welfare Law: Aug. 1996 vs. March 1999 --- and more.

Bureau of Labor Statistics - stats on poverty, incomes, employment, living conditions, etc.
U.S. Consumer Price Indexes Page
HHS Agencies on the Internet

National Press Club, Washington, DC
Preparing for Welfare Block Grants: Issues Facing California
YOUTHLINK (the SSA's child- and youth-friendly website to explain Social Security to young children, teens, parents and teachers) - well worth a visit!
U.S. Child Support Home Page
U.S. Federal Government Agencies

University of Southern Carolina Social Work
US Social Security Links
US Health & Social Services Agencies - Links

Related Canadian Social Research Links pages:

American Non-Government Social Research Links (A-J)
American Non-Government Social Research Links (M-Z)
Poverty Measures
Children and Families - International

Social Research Statistics



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